Romania picturesque

                                                   Wallahia

Get over followers of Basarab rulers who contributed as much as one could in the formation of the Roman and reach Mircea the Elder.

Mircea the Elder (Bulgarian: Мирчо Стари Mircho Stari, Romanian: Mircea cel Bătrân, Serbian: Мирча Стари/Mirča Stari, d. 31 January 1418) was ruler of Wallachia from 1386 until his death. The byname “elder” was given to him after his death in order to distinguish him from his grandson Mircea II (“Mircea the Younger”). Starting in the 19th century, Romanian historiography has also referred to him as Mircea the Great (Romanian: Mircea cel Mare).MirceatheElder

Mircea was the son of voivode Radu I of Wallachia and an unknown woman (not Callinica), thus being a descendant of the House of Basarab.He was the father to Vlad II Dracul and grandfather of Mircea II, Vlad the Impaler (Dracula), Vlad Călugărul and Radu the Handsome. All of these would at one time or the other rule Wallachia, with Mircea II and Vlad Ţepeş both being able military commanders (the later became one of the most notorious leaders in history]

Mircea’s reign is often considered to have brought stability to Wallachia. Found in a volatile region of the world, this principality’s borders constantly shifted, but during Mircea’s rule, Wallachia controlled the largest area in its history: from the river Olt in the north to the Danube in the south, and from the Danube’s Iron Gates in the west to the Black Sea in the east.

Mircea strengthened the power of the state and organized the different high offices, promoted economic development, increased the state’s revenue, and minted silver money that enjoyed wide circulation not only inside the country but also in neighboring countries. He gave the merchants of Poland and Lithuania trade privileges and renewed those his predecessors had given to the people of Braşov. As a result, Mircea was able to afford increasing his military power. He fortified the Danube citadels and strengthened “the great army” made up of townspeople and of free and dependent peasants. He also proved to be a great supporter for the Church.
While organizing the country and its institutions, Mircea also formed a system of lasting alliances which enabled him to defend the independence of the country.Through the intermediary of Petru Muşat, the prince of Moldavia, he concluded a treaty of alliance with Władysław II Jagiełło, king of Poland in 1389. The treaty was renewed in 1404 and 1410. He maintained close relations with Sigismund of Luxembourg, the king of Hungary, relying on their common interest in the struggle against Ottoman expansion.

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His interventions in support of the Bulgarians south of the Danube who were fighting against the Turks brought him into conflict with the Ottoman Empire. In 1394 Beyazid I (also known as “Yıldırım Beyazıt”, “the Thunderbolt”) crossed the Danube river, leading 40,000 men, an impressive force at the time. Mircea had only about 10,000 men so he could not survive an open fight. He chose what today we would call guerrilla warfare by starving the opposing army and utilizing small, localized attacks and retreats (a typical form of asymmetric warfare). On October 10, 1394, the two armies finally clashed at the Battle of Rovine, which featured a forested and swampy terrain, thus preventing the Ottomans from properly spreading their army; Mircea finally won the fierce battle and threw the Ottomans out of the country. This famous battle was later epically described by the poet Mihai Eminescu in his Third Epistle. However, Mircea had to retreat to Hungary, while the Turks installed Vlad Uzurpatorul on the throne of Wallachia.
In 1396 Mircea participated in an anti-Ottoman crusade started by Hungary’s monarch. The crusade ended with the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Nicopolis on September 25. In the next year, 1397, Mircea, having defeated Vlad the Usurper with Hungarian help, stopped another Ottoman expedition that crossed the Danube, and in 1400 he defeated yet another expedition of Turks crossing the country.Giurescu, pp. 368.
The defeat of Sultan Beyazid I by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) at Ankara in the summer of 1402 opened a period of anarchy in the Ottoman Empire and Mircea took advantage of it to organize together with the Hungarian king a campaign against the Turks. In 1404 Mircea was thus able to impose his rule on Dobrogea again. Moreover, Mircea took part in the struggles for the throne of the Ottoman Empire and enabled Musa to ascend that throne (for a brief reign). It was at this time that the prince reached the height of his power.Giurescu, pp. 369
Towards the end of his reign, Mircea signed a treaty with the Ottomans; in return for a tribute of 3,000 gold pieces per year, the Ottomans desisted from making Wallachia a province (“pashalik”).

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The seal of Voivode Mircea from 1390, depicting the coat of arms

Battle of Nicopolis

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The Battle of Nicopolis, as depicted by Turkish miniaturist in 1588

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Titus Fay saves King Sigismund of Hungary in the Battle of Nicopolis. Painting in the Castle of Vaja, creation of Ferenc Lohr, 1896.

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Cozia Monastery, founded and necropolis of Mircea the Elder

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Vlad II

Vlad II (d. December 1447), known as Vlad Dracul (English: Vlad the Dragon), was a voivode (English: duke) of Wallachia. He reigned from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. He was the father of Mircea II, Vlad Călugărul (English: Vlad the Monk), Vlad III Dracula, who became posthumously known by the epithet Ţepeş (English: the Impaler), and Radu III the Beautiful.
Vlad II received the surname Dracul in 1431, after being inducted into the Order of the Dragon, founded in 1408 by the King Sigismund of Hungary (the later Holy Roman Emperor), as part of a design to gain political favor from the Catholic Church and to aid in protecting Wallachia against the Ottoman Empire.

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Vlad II Dracul was a member of the House of Drăculeşti lineage, and son of Mircea “the Old”, Voivoide of Walachia, and was known to have murdered members of the rival princely House of Dăneşti, a not-so-distant relation to his own father’s House of Basarab, and gained power in Wallachia, upon returning from exile in Transylvania in 1436.
The identity of Vlad’s first wife is unknown. His second wife, Princess (Cneajna) Vasilissa of Moldavia, was the eldest daughter of Alexandru cel Bun and paternal aunt of Stephen the Great of Moldavia.
Of his legitimate children, Mircea was the eldest, his mother’s identity being unknown. Vlad Călugărul was the product of Vlad and one of his mistresses, a Wallachian noblewoman called Călţuna. Vlad Ţepeş and Radu were products of his marriage with Cneajna of Moldavia.

In 1431, Vlad Dracul’s brother Alexandru I Aldea took the throne from Dan II, the latter having held it on and off since 1420. In 1436, following Alexandru I Aldea’s death from illness, Vlad Dracul ascended to the throne.

Mircea II ascended to the throne in 1442, as Vlad Dracul was in the Ottoman court negotiating for support from the Ottomans in an effort to better defend his rule against John Hunyadi, the voivode of Transylvania. Following the battle of Marosszentimre (Romanian Sântimbru) in 1442, Hunyadi forcefully entered Wallachia and forced Dracul to submit.[2] In 1443, Mircea II was ousted from the throne by an invading army led by Hunyadi, and was forced to flee. Hunyadi placed Basarab II, son to Dan II, on the throne. However, Basarab II held the throne for only a short time, losing it within a year to Vlad Dracul, supported by armies of the Ottoman Empire. Vlad Dracul had made a treaty with the Ottomans insuring that he would give them annual tribute, as well as sending Wallachian boys to them yearly to be trained for service in their armies. He also had left his two sons, Vlad Tepes and Radu the Handsome as captives.
Mircea II supported his father, but did not support his politics with the Ottoman Empire. Mircea II led Wallachian forces in a successful campaign against the Ottomans with the full knowledge of his father, but with no support or opposition from him. An able military commander, Mircea II successfully recaptured the fortress of Giurgiu in 1445. However, in yet another treaty with the Ottomans, his father allowed the Ottomans to again have control of the fortress in an effort to retain their support of his having the throne, and in an effort to keep his two captive sons safe.
in 1433, the new King of Hungary, Ulaszlo I (also King of Poland as Władysław III Warneńczyk), launched the Varna campaign against the Ottoman Empire, under the command of Hunyadi, in an effort to drive the Turks out of Europe. Hunyadi demanded that Vlad II fulfill his oath as a member of the Order of the Dragon and a vassal of Hungary: Vlad was commanded to join the campaign but declined.
Pope Eugene IV absolved Dracul of his promise, but demanded that he send his son Mircea II instead (it is likely that Vlad II had originally denied the request in an effort to prevent his sons from being convoked). The Christian army was destroyed in the Battle of Varna; Hunyadi escaped the scene, and was blamed by many, including Mircea II and his father, for the debacle. This marked the start of hostilities between Hunyadi on one side and Vlad Dracul and his eldest son on the other.
In December 1447, boyars in league with the Hungarian regent John Hunyadi rebelled against Vlad Dracul II and killed him in the marshes near Bălteni. Mircea, Dracul’s eldest son and heir, was blinded and buried alive at Târgoviște

Vlad the Impaler

Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia (1431–1476), was a member of the House of Drăculești, a branch of the House of Basarab, also known by his patronymic name: Dracula. He was posthumously dubbed Vlad the Impaler (Romanian: Vlad Țepeș pronounced [vlad t’sepeʃ]), and was a three-time Voivode of Wallachia, ruling mainly from 1456 to 1462, the period of the incipient Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. His father, Vlad II Dracul, was a member of the Order of the Dragon, which was founded to protect Christianity in Eastern Europe. Vlad III is revered as a folk hero in Romania for his protection of the Romanian population both south and north of the Danube. A significant number of Romanian and Bulgarian common folk and remaining boyars (nobles) moved north of the Danube to Wallachia, recognized his leadership and settled there following his raids on the Ottomans.

As the cognomen ‘The Impaler’ suggests, his practice of impaling his enemies is central to his historical reputation. During his lifetime, his reputation for excessive cruelty spread abroad, to Germany and elsewhere in Europe. The total number of his victims is estimated in the tens of thousands. The name of the vampire Count Dracula in Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel Dracula was inspired by Vlad’s patronymic

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signature of the great leader

During his life Vlad wrote his name in Latin documents as Wladislaus Dragwlya, vaivoda partium Transalpinarum (1475).
His Romanian patronymic Dragwlya (or Dragkwlya)Dragulea, Dragolea, Drăculea is a diminutive of the epithet Dracul carried by his father Vlad II, who in 1431 was inducted as a member of the Order of the Dragon, a chivalric order founded by Sigismund of Hungary in 1408. Dracul is the Romanian definite form, the -ul being the suffixal definite article (deriving from Latin ille). The noun drac “dragon” itself continues Latin draco. Thus, Dracula literally means “Son of the Dragon”. In Modern Romanian, the word drac has adopted the meaning of “devil” (the term for “dragon” now being balaur or dragon). This has led to misinterpretations of Vlad’s epithet as characterizing him as “devilish”.
Vlad’s moniker of Țepeș (“Impaler”) identifies his favourite method of execution. It was attached to his name posthumously, in ca. 1550.Before this, however, he was known as “Kazikli Bey” (The Impaler Lord) by the Ottoman Empire after their armies encountered his “forests” of impalement victims.

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Bust of Vlad Tepes, Sighisoara, Romania

Early life

Vlad was born in Sighișoara, Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary (today part of Romania), in the winter of 1431 to Vlad II Dracul, future voivode of Wallachia. Vlad’s father was the son of the celebrated Voivode Mircea the Elder. His mother is unknown, though at the time his father is believed to have been married to Princess Cneajna of Moldavia (eldest daughter of Alexander “the Good”, Prince of Moldavia and aunt to Stephen the Great of Moldavia) but to also keep a number of mistresses.He had two older half-brothers, Mircea II and Vlad Călugărul, and a younger brother, Radu III the Handsome.
Vlad Dracul
In the year of his birth, Vlad’s father, known under the nickname Dracul, had traveled to Nuremberg where he had been vested into the Order of the Dragon.
Vlad and Radu spent their early formative years in Sighișoara. During the first reign of their father, Vlad II Dracul, the Voivode brought his young sons to Târgoviște, the capital of Wallachia at that time.
The Byzantine chancellor Mikhail Doukas showed that, at Târgoviște, the sons of boyars and ruling princes were well-educated by Romanian or Greek scholars commissioned from Constantinople. Vlad is believed to have learned combat skills, geography, mathematics, science, languages (Old Church Slavonic, German, Latin), and the classical arts and philosophy.

Life in Edirne

In 1436, Vlad II Dracul ascended the throne of Wallachia. He was ousted in 1442 by rival factions in league with Hungary, but secured Ottoman support for his return by agreeing to pay the Tribute to the Sultan.
Vlad II also sent his two legitimate sons, Vlad and Radu, to the Ottoman court, to serve as hostages of his loyalty. After the death of Vlad II Dracul, Radu stayed at the Ottoman court.
During his years as hostage, Vlad was educated in logic, the Quran and the Turkish language and works of literature. He would speak this language fluently in his later years.He and his brother were also trained in warfare and riding horses. The boys’ father, Vlad Dracul, was awarded the support of the Ottomans and returned to Wallachia and took back his throne from Basarab II and some unfaithful Boyars.

First reign and exile
In December 1447, boyars in league with the Hungarian regent John Hunyadi rebelled against Vlad II Dracul and killed him in the marshes near Bălteni. Mircea, Dracul’s eldest son and heir, was blinded and buried alive at Târgoviște.
To prevent Wallachia from falling into the Hungarian fold, the Ottomans invaded Wallachia and put young Vlad III on the throne. However, this rule was short-lived as Hunyadi himself now invaded Wallachia and restored his ally Vladislav II, of the Dănești clan, to the throne.
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Vlad fled to Moldavia, where he lived under the protection of his uncle, Bogdan II. In October 1451, Bogdan was assassinated and Vlad fled to Hungary. Impressed by Vlad’s vast knowledge of the mindset and inner workings of the Ottoman Empire as well as his hatred of the new sultan Mehmed II, Hunyadi reconciled with his former rival and made him his advisor.
After the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II in 1453, Ottoman influence began to spread from this base through the Carpathians, threatening mainland Europe, and by 1481 conquering the entire Balkans peninsula. Vlad’s rule thus falls entirely within the three decades of the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.
In 1456, three years after the Ottomans had conquered Constantinople, they threatened Hungary by besieging Belgrade. Hunyadi began a concerted counter-attack in Serbia: while he himself moved into Serbia and relieved the siege (before dying of the plague), Vlad led his own contingent into Wallachia, reconquered his native land and killed Vladislav II in hand-to-hand combat.

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Mehmed II

Internal policy
Vlad found Wallachia in a wretched state: constant war had resulted in rampant crime, falling agricultural production, and the virtual disappearance of trade. Regarding a stable economy essential to resisting external enemies, he used severe methods to restore order and prosperity.
Vlad had three aims for Wallachia: to strengthen the country’s economy, its defense, and his own political power. He took measures to help the peasants’ well-being by building new villages and raising agricultural output. He understood the importance of trade for the development of Wallachia. He helped the Wallachian merchants by limiting foreign merchant trade to three market towns: Târgșor, Câmpulung and Târgoviște.
Vlad considered the boyars the chief cause of the constant strife as well as of the death of his father and brother. To secure his rule he had many leading nobles killed. He also gave positions in his council which had traditionally belonged to the greatest boyars to persons of obscure or foreign origin who would be loyal to him alone. For lower offices, Vlad preferred knights and free peasants to boyars. In his aim of fixing up Wallachia, Vlad issued new laws punishing thieves. Vlad treated the boyars with the same harshness, believing them guilty of weakening Wallachia through their personal struggles for power.
The army was also strengthened. He had a small personal guard, mostly made of mercenaries, who were rewarded with loot and promotions. He also established a militia or ‘lesser army’ made up of peasants called to fight whenever war came.
Vlad Dracula built a church at Târgșor (allegedly in the memory of his father and older brother who were killed nearby), and he contributed with money to the Snagov Monastery.

War with the Ottomans
In 1459, Pope Pius II called for a new crusade against the Ottomans, at the Congress of Mantua. In this crusade, the main role was to be played by Matthias Corvinus, son of John Hunyadi (János Hunyadi), the King of Hungary. To this effect, Matthias Corvinus received from the Pope 40,000 golden coins, an amount that was thought to be enough to gather an army of 12,000 men and purchase 10 Danube warships. In this context, Vlad allied himself with Matthias Corvinus, with the hope of keeping the Ottomans out of the country (Wallachia was claimed as a part of the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Mehmed II).

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Vlad the Impaler and the Turkish Envoys. Painting by Theodor Aman.
Later that year, in 1459, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II sent envoys to Vlad to urge him to pay a delayed tribute[7] of 10,000 ducats and 500 recruits into the Ottoman forces. Vlad refused, because if he had paid the ‘tribute’, as the tax was called at the time, it would have meant a public acceptance of Wallachia as part of the Ottoman Empire. Vlad, just like most of his predecessors and successors, had as a primary goal to keep Wallachia as independent as possible. Vlad had the Turkish envoys killed on the pretext that they had refused to raise their “hats” to him, by nailing their turbans to their heads.
Meanwhile, the Sultan received intelligence reports that revealed Vlad’s domination of the Danube. He sent the Bey of Nicopolis, Hamza Pasha, to make peace and, if necessary, eliminate Vlad III.
Vlad Țepeș planned to set an ambush. Hamza Pasha, the Bey of Nicopolis, brought with him 1000 cavalry and when passing through a narrow pass north of Giurgiu, Vlad launched a surprise attack. The Wallachians had the Turks surrounded and defeated. The Turks’ plans were thwarted and almost all of them caught and impaled, with Hamza Pasha impaled on the highest stake to show his rank.
In the winter of 1462, Vlad crossed the Danube and devastated the entire Bulgarian land in the area between Serbia and the Black Sea. Disguising himself as a Turkish Sipahi and utilizing the fluent Turkish he had learned as a hostage, he infiltrated and destroyed Ottoman camps. In a letter to Corvinus dated 2 February, he wrote:’I have killed peasants men and women, old and young, who lived at Oblucitza and Novoselo, where the Danube flows into the sea, up to Rahova, which is located near Chilia, from the lower Danube up to such places as Samovit and Ghighen. We killed 23,884 Turks without counting those whom we burned in homes or the Turks whose heads were cut by our soldiers…Thus, your highness, you must know that I have broken the peace with him’ .

In response to this, Sultan Mehmed II raised an army of around 60,000 troops and 30,000 irregulars, and in spring of 1462 headed towards Wallachia. Commanding at best only 30,000 to 40,000 men (depending of the source),Vlad was unable to stop the Ottomans from crossing the Danube on June 4, 1462 and entering Wallachia. He constantly organized small attacks and ambushes on the Turks, such as The Night Attack when 15,000 Turks were killed.This infuriated Mehmed II, who then crossed the Danube. With the exception of some Turkish references all the other chronicles at the time that mention the 1462 campaign state that the Sultan was defeated.[citation needed] Apparently, the Turks retreated in such a hurry that by July 11, 1462 the Sultan was already in Adrianopolis.[citation needed] According to the Byzantine historian Chalcocondil,[citation needed] Radu, brother of Vlad III and ingratiate of the Sultan, was left behind in Targoviste with the hope that he would be able to gather an anti-Vlad clique that would ultimately get rid of Vlad as Voivode of Wallachia and crown Radu as the new puppet ruler.

Vlad the Impaler’s attack was celebrated by the Saxon cities of Transylvania, the Italian states and the Pope. A Venetian envoy, upon hearing about the news at the court of Corvinus on 4 March, expressed great joy and said that the whole of Christianity should celebrate Vlad Țepeș’s successful campaign. The Genoese from Caffa also thanked Vlad, for his campaign had saved them from an attack of some 300 ships that the sultan planned to send against them.

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Transylvanian Saxon engraving from 1462 depicting Vlad Țepeș

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A woodcut depicting Vlad Țepeș published in Nuremberg in 1488 on the title page of the pamphlet Die geschicht dracole waide.

Defeat

Vlad’s younger brother Radu cel Frumos and his Janissary battalions were given the task of leading the Ottoman Empire to victory at all expense by Sultan Mehmet II. After the Sipahis’ incursions failed to subdue Vlad, the few remaining Sipahi were killed in a night raid by Vlad III in 1462. However, as the war raged on, Radu and his formidable Janissary battalions were well supplied with a steady flow of gunpowder and dinars; this allowed them to push deeper into the realm of Vlad III. Radu and his well-equipped forces finally besieged Poenari Castle, the famed lair of Vlad III. After his difficult victory Radu was given the title Bey of Wallachia by Sultan Mehmed II.
Vlad III’s defeat at Poenari was due in part to the fact that the Boyars, who had been alienated by Vlad’s policy of undermining their authority, had joined Radu under the assurance that they would regain their privileges. They may have also believed that Ottoman protection was better than Hungarian. It was said as well that Radu (through his spies or traitors) found the place where some Boyars’ families were hidden during the war (probably some forests around Snagov) and blackmailed them to come to his side.
By 8 September, Vlad had won another three victories, but continuous war had left him without any money and he could no longer pay his mercenaries. Vlad traveled to Hungary to ask for help from his former ally, Matthias Corvinus. Instead of receiving help, he found himself arrested and thrown into the dungeon for high treason. Corvinus, not planning to get involved in a war after having spent the Papal money meant for it on personal expenses,forged a letter from Vlad III to the Ottomans where he supposedly proposed a peace with them, to give an explanation for the Pope and a reason to abandon the war and return to his capital.

Captivity in Hungary
Vlad was imprisoned at Oratia, a fortress located at Podu Dâmboviței Bridge. A period of imprisonment in Visegrád near Buda followed, where the Wallachian prince was held for 10 years. Then he was imprisoned in Buda.
The exact length of Vlad’s period of captivity is open to some debate, though indications are that it was from 1462 until 1474. Diplomatic correspondence from Buda seems to indicate that the period of Vlad’s effective confinement was relatively short. Radu’s openly pro-Ottoman policy as voivode probably contributed to Vlad’s rehabilitation. Moreover, Ștefan cel Mare, Voievod of Moldavia and relative of Vlad intervened on his behalf to be released from prison as the Ottoman pressure on the territories north of the Danube was increasing.

Conversion to Roman Catholicism
Vlad III, the Impaler, converted to Roman Catholicism from Orthodoxy in 1475 while imprisoned by King Matthias of Hungary. King Matthias agreed to release Vlad from prison, only if he renounced his beloved Orthodox religion, and married Countess Ilona Szilagy, the Hungarian king’s cousin. It wasn’t a difficult decision to make; Vlad loved Valachia, and wanted nothing more than to be back home again. So, he begrudgingly took the hand of the King’s relative, and converted to Catholicism; he died soon after.

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Third reign and death
After Radu’s sudden death in 1475, Vlad III declared his third reign in 26 November 1476. Vlad began preparations for the reconquest of Wallachia in 1476 with Hungarian support. Vlad’s third reign had lasted little more than two months when he was assassinated.The exact date of his death is unknown, presumably the end of December 1476, but it is known that he was dead by 10 January 1477. The exact location of his death is also unknown, but it would have been somewhere along the road between Bucharest and Giurgiu. Vlad’s head was taken to Constantinople as a trophy, and his body was buried unceremoniously by his rival, Basarab Laiota, possibly at Comana, a monastery founded by Vlad in 1461.The Comana monastery was demolished and rebuilt from scratch in 1589

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                      Wallachia

 

Foundation of Wallachia

The foundation of Wallachia (Romanian: Descălecatul Ţării Româneşti), that is the establishment of the first independent Romanian principality, was achieved at the beginning of the 14th century, through the unification of smaller political units that had existed between the Carpathian Mountains, and the Rivers Danube, Siret and Milcov.
Prior to the consolidation of Wallachia, waves of nomadic peoples – the last of them being the Cumans and the Mongols – rode across the territory.The territory became a frontier area between the Golden Horde (the westernmost part of the Mongol Empire) and the Kingdom of Hungary after 1242.The Romanians in Muntenia, east of the Olt River, had to pay tribute to the Mongols; and west of the river, in Oltenia, they were oppressed by the Bans of Severin, appointed by the Kings of Hungary. The Golden Horde’s domination decreased in the region at the end of the 13th century, and at that time the Kingdom of Hungary also underwent a strong political crisis.[8] These events enabled the incipient states of the territory to consolidate their autonomy.
One Romanian tradition records that Wallachia was founded when a certain Radu Negru (‘Radu the Black’) arrived from the Făgăraş region in the 1290s after crossing the Transylvanian Alps with “a great many following him”. More credible is the report that some Romanian lords in the Olt and Argeş valleys chose as leader one of their number, a certain Basarab.
It was Voivode Basarab I (c. 1310–1352) who broke off with the Kingdom of Hungary and refused to accept the king’s suzerainty.Basarab I received international support and the recognition of the autonomy of Wallachia due to his great military victory over King Charles I of Hungary (1301–1342) at Posada on November 12, 1330. The Metropolitan See of Wallachia, directly subordinated to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, was set up during the reign of Basarab I’s son, Nicolae Alexandru (1352–1364). The first silver and bronze coins were minted in Wallachia in 1365.

In the mists of time

Bezerenbam

Bezerenbam seems to be a Wallachian ruler mentioned in 1241 in the Persian chronicle of Fazel-Ullah-Raschid, with Mişelav. Country Ilaut prince was probably where they met Tatars during their invasion. Some researchers assume that was the predecessor of Litovoi, but not hazardează others in such statements due to the route difficult to determine, according to reports chronicle:
“Ordul, through Ilaut country has met and beat Bezerenbam. [And still Budjek] Sassanilor Mountains pass to enter the Kara-Ulag, karaulaghilor peoples faces, move mountains and enters the land of Mişelav, which beat the enemy that awaited him.”

Litovoi

Litovoi,also Litvoy, was a Vlach voivode in the 13th century whose territory comprised northern Oltenia (Romania).
He is mentioned for the first time in a diploma issued by king Béla IV of Hungary (1235–1270) on 2 July 1247.The diploma granted territories to the Knights Hospitaller in the Banate of Severin and Cumania, “with the exception of the land of the kenazate of Voivode Litovoi,” which the king leaved to the Vlachs “as they had held it”.
The king’s diploma also refers to the kenazates of Farcaş and John and to a certain voivode Seneslau.Although the names of Litovoi and Seneslau are of Slavic origin, they are expressly said to be Vlachs (Olati) in the king’s diploma.Bulgarian historian Vasil Zlatarski, based on an information[clarification needed] of Rashid-al-Din and other sources[clarification needed], suggests that the voivodeship of Litovoi was under the suzerainty of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
It seems that Litovoi was the most powerful of all the above local rulers.His territories were exempted from the grant to the knights,but half of the royal taxes generated by his land (terra Lytua) was assigned to the Hospitallers – except for the income from the Haţeg district (terra Harszoc in the diploma’s only surviving, papal copy), which the king kept all for himself. According to the Romanian historian Ioan Aurel Pop, the king had grabbed Haţeg from Litovoi shortly before 1247.
In 1277 (or between 1277 and 1280),Litovoi was at war with the Hungarians over lands king Ladislaus IV of Hungary (1272–1290) claimed for the crown, but for which Litovoi refused to pay tribute.Litovoi was killed in battle.This event is recounted in the king’s letter of grant of 8 January 1285, in which king Ladislaus IV donated villages in Sáros County (today in Slovakia) to Master George, son of Simon, who had been sent against Litovoi.

 

Bărbat

Bărbat was the brother and successor of voivode Litovoi whose territory had comprised northern Oltenia (Romania).
In 1277(or between 1277 and 1280), Litovoi renounced fealty to king Ladislaus IV of Hungary (1272–1290)when the king claimed lands for the crown, but Litovoi refused to pay tribute for them.King Ladislaus IV dispatched a punitive force,and Litovoi was killed during the battle against the Hungarian army.Bărbat was taken prisoner and sent to the royal court where he was forced not only to pay ransom but also to recognize Hungarian rule.After Bărbat accepted Hungarian suzerainty under the stress of circumstances, he returned to his country.
All these events are recounted in the king’s letter of grant of 8 January 1285, in which king Ladislaus IV donated villages in Sáros County (today in Slovakia) to Master George, son of Simon, who had been sent against Litovoi.

Basarab I of Wallachia

Basarab I the Founder (Romanian: Basarab Întemeietorul, also Basarab I the Great, Basarab cel Mare;was voivode or prince of Wallachia (c. 1310/1319–1352).His rise seems to have taken place in the context of the war between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Orthodox states in the north of the Balkan Peninsula.Around 1324 Basarab became a vassal of King Charles I of Hungary (1308–1342), but later the king called him ‘unfaithful’ on the pretext that Basarab had occupied crown territories.
Basarab I’s name was originally Basarabai and lost the ending -a when it was borrowed into Romanian. The name is of Cuman or Pecheneg[5] origin and most likely meant “father ruler”. Basar was the present participle of the verb “to rule”, derivatives attested in both old and modern Kypchak languages. The Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga believed the second part of the name, -aba (“father”), to be an honorary title, as recognizable in many Cuman names, such as Terteroba, Arslanapa, and Ursoba.
In 1330 King Charles I launched an expedition into Wallachia to restore his authority over that area.On November 12, after three days of fighting, Basarab defeated the Hungarian forces at the battle of Posada.The battle marked the end of Hungarian rule and the appearance of the first independent Romanian principality.
Basarab founded the first Romanian ruling dynasty which was named after him.
From the mid-14th century onwards his name appears in Serbian, Hungarian, Moldavian and Polish sources as the name of Wallachia, and from the 15th century as a name for the territory between the lower reaches of the rivers Prut and Dniester. Bessarabia became the name of the whole land between the Prut and the Dniester ( today’s Republic of Moldova) only after the Russian conquest of the area in 1812.

Descent

Basarab was the son of a local potentate called Thocomerius whose status cannot be specified.Several Romanian historians suggest that Thocomerius followed Bărbat(the latter had been mentioned in a letter of grant of 8 January 1285 issued by King Ladislaus IV of Hungary as the brother and successor of Litovoi, a voivode in modern Oltenia).
Basarab was expressly stated to be a Romanian (Vlach); King Charles I of Hungary speaks of him as ‘our unfaithful Vlach’.
The linguist Sorin Paliga suggests that – despite many opposite hypotheses – his name may be one of the Thracian anthroponomical relics in Romanian, since the root bas-, bes- is well attested in Thracian (cf. Albanian besë ‘creed, faith’). He thinks that the name may be the continuation of the similar Thracian names (e.g., Bassaros, Bassos, Bassus) and may be connected to Bassarái (a garment of Bacchus priestesses).

Vassal of the king of Hungary

Toward the middle of the 13th century voivodates dependent on the Kingdom of Hungary began to form on the territories of future Wallachia, but evidence shows that they soon sought independence from the Hungarian drown. The trend toward unification seems to have begun with Litovoi who was at war with the Hungarians in 1277 and was killed in battle.

The Kingdom of Hungary underwent a strong political crisis at the end of the Árpád dynasty . The Golden Horde’s domination also decreased in the territories between the Carpathian Mountains and the river Danube at the end of the 13th century.These enabled the states in the sub-Carpathian regions to consolidate their autonomy and to progressively extend their authority over the Danube plains.

Basarab was a vassal of King Charles I of Hungary, who called him‘our voivode of Wallachia’in a diploma issued on 26 July 1324. He became the king’s vassal probably after 1321, because it was towards the end of 1321 or the beginning of 1322 when the king personally lead a campaign to the Banat that resulted in his recapture of the castle of Mehadia from the rebel Vejteh family. Basarab, however, was already referred to as ‘Basarab of Wallachia, unfaithful to the king’s Holy Crown’ in a diploma issued on 18 June 1325. The diploma also narrates that a certain Stephen, son of Parabuh, a Cuman count in Hungary, in the course of a dispute, stated that Basarab’s strength exceeded that of the Hungarian king himself.

The Hungarian historian István Vásáry suggests that the king must have referred to him as a rebellious vassal because Basarab had occupied the Banate of Severin, a province of the Kingdom of Hungary on the territory of modern Oltenia.The Romanian historian Tudor Sălăgean thinks that by 1325 Basarab had already been in possession of the strategic fortress of Severin as a result of a peace treaty between Hungary and Wallachia in 1324.Nevertheless, between 1324 and 1330 no reference can be found in the sources to any ban of Severin, so it must have been during these years that Basarab seized the province.

The fact that Pope John22 (1316-1334) addressed Basarab, in 1327, as a ‘devoted Catholic prince’ and praised his actions against the unfaithful seems to show some collaboration between the Romanian voivode and the Catholic world, but the precise details are missing

The battle of Posada (Viennese copy of Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle)

The battle of Posada (Viennese copy of Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle)

The battle of Posada and its background

Basarab gave his daughter in marriage to Ivan Alexander, a nephew of Tzar  Michael Shishman of Bulgaria (1323–1330) who was an enemy of the Hungarian king. In a document issued on 27 March 1329, Basarab was mentioned among King Charles I’s enemies alongside the Bulgarians, the Serbs and the Tatars who constantly attacked the Hungarian confines. In 1330, Basarab took part in the military campaign Tzar Michael Sishman launched against Serbia, which ended on July 18 withthe Serb victory at Velbazhd  .

Immediately following the Serbian defeat of the Bulgarians and Romanians at Velbazhd, King Charles I made an expedition against Basarab.When the Banate of Severin was retaken, Basarab offered to pay yearly tribute and 7,000 silver marks in compensation, and to recognize the king’s sovereignty; but his offers were rejected, and the king advanced into Wallachia as far as Curtea de Arges. However, the king was eventually forced to withdraw toward Transylvania without having engaged the Romanian army in battle, because difficulties rose in the provision of food supplies.

But a large contingent of Wallachian soldiers was waiting for the Hungarians at Posada, and as they were winding their way through a narrow valley, the Hungarians found themselves trapped. On November 12, after three days of fighting, the Hungarians were soundly defeated, the king managing with difficulty to escape with his life.

King Charles I fleeing from the battle at Posada

The independent Wallachia

The victory of 1330 sanctioned the independence of Wallachia from the Hungarian crown and also essentially altered its international position.Only a few month after his great victory, in February, 1331, Basarab contributed to the establishment of his son-in-law, Ivan Alexander on the throne of the tsars of Tarnova.In 1331-32, Wallachian troops supported the Bulgarians in a victorious war against Byzantium. During the same period Basarab seems to have regained the fortress of Severin.

A new Hungarian offensive took place between 1343 and 1345, after King Charles’ death and the coronation of his son King Louis I .This time, Basarab lost the fortress of Severin and his son, Nicolae Alexandru, probably associated to the throne, accepted paying the homage of vassalage to the king of Hungary.

Here are buried the first Wallchians princes ,and dates from the 70s.[Curtea de arges].Construction of the church began in the reign of Basarab I, to be continued by Nicholas Alexander (1352 – 1364) and end with mural paintings, mostly kept to this day, under the rule of Vlaicu Voda (1364-1377).

Romania picturesqe

Transilvania

Szekelyland

Mures seat

The current Romanian name of the city,Târgu Mureş, is the equivalent with the Hungarian Marosvásárhely with both meaning “market on the Mures (Maros) [River]” In Romanian, târg means “market” and, in Hungarian, vásárhely means “marketplace”. The HungarianMarosvásárhely is sometimes shortened toVásárhely.

The first written reference to the city was in the Latin Novum Forum Siculorum in 1332 followed by mention as Sekulvasarhel(modern Hungarian: Székelyvásárhely), meaning “new market of the Szekelys”, in 1349.Other Latin names for the town included Agropolis and Areopolis.

In 1616, Gabriel Bethlen gave the nameMarosvásárhely to the newly upgraded royal free city. The Romanian name for the city,Oşorhei was a phonetic derivation fromVásárhely while the German name for the town, Neumarkt am Mieresch (also shortened to Neumarkt or Marktstadt; inTransylvanian saxon, Nai Mark or Nai Muark), is a translation of Marosvásárhely.

Other historical Romanian names for the town besides Oșorhei were Mureș-Oșorhei and Tîrgu Mureşului; other historical Hungarian names in addition toSzékelyvásárhely included Újszékelyvásár and Újvásár.

After World War I, Marosvásárhely became part of Romania and was renamedOșorheiu. The name Târgu Mureș became common in the interwar period. After, World War II, the spelling of the city’s name was changed to Tîrgu Mureș following a 1953 spelling reform that replaced the letters a with i in all words. Another spelling reform in 1993 replaced the letters î with â in many words and the city has been officially spelt “Târgu-Mureș”.

History

The city was first documented in 1332 in the papal registry under the name Novum Forum Siculorum, and as Sekulvasarhel(Székelyvásárhely) in 1349. On the place of its Castle Church, the Dominican’s church stood until the Mongol invasion, when it was destroyed. In its place, the Franciscans built a new Gothic church in 1260, which was completed in 1446. Since 1439 the town was the scene of the session of parliament (diet) 36 times. In 1405, the King of Hungary Szigismund of Luxembourg granted the city the right to organize fairs. In 1470 King Mattias Corvinus granted the first judicial privilege to the city, and in 1482 declared the city a royal settlement. In 1492, wayvoda István Báthory strengthened its monastery with fortifications, this was a pentagon-shaped outer castle tower. In 1506, the troops of Pál Tomori were beaten by the Szeklers rising against the payment of an extraordinary Ox tax imposed on them on occasion of the birth of Louis of Hungary. In 1557, the Reformed Church College (i.e. Presbyterians) was established as the oldest Hungarian school of Transylvania. In 1571, the session of Transylvanian parliament under prince John the secind Sigismund Zapolya accepted the free preach of the word of God, including the Unitarian Church. In 1600–1601, as a result of the siege of Giorgio Basta, the fortress turned to ruins. In 1602, the troops of Gergely Németh put on fire the remaining houses of the town, therefore, in 1602 the reconstruction of the fortress was started further the advice of mayor Tamas Borsos, but it was actually built between 1614 and 1653. Mozes Szekey the only prince of Szekler origin visited the city in 1603, when liberated Transylvania from foreign domination. In 1616, it was granted the status of a free royal city under the name of Maros-Vásárhely by prince (fejedelem) Gabor Bethlen. In 1658, Turkish and Tartarian troops invaded and burned it, 3000 people were taken into captivity. In 1661, as no one show willingness to accept the duty of prince, under pressure from pasha Ali, Mihaly Apafi was elected prince here. In 1662, resulting from the negligence of the Turkish military residing here, the city was almost completely burnt down. In 1687, it was devastated by German imperial troops.

In 1704, the Kuruc troops of Pál Kaszás occupied the fortress, which was re-occupied by Lőrinc Pekry from the labanc in 1706. On 5 April 1707, Francis the second Rakoczi was raised to the chair of princes. In 1707 it was struck by pest, more than 3500 people died, the black death renewed in 1709, 1719 and in 1738–39. The city received a major boost to its social and economic life when it became home to supreme court of justice of the  Principality of Transylvania in 1754. In 1802, the Teleki Library founded by count iSamuel Teleki was opened for the public with 40.000 volumes.

Avram Iancu, the leader of the 1848 Romanian revolution in Transylvania, was a young lawyer in the city of Marosvásárhely before engaging in the fight for the rights of Romanians living in Transylvania. On 4 November 1848, the Szekler troops were beaten by the Austrian imperial troops under its walls, and the city was also captured. On 13 January 1849 the troop of major Tolnay recaptured it. On 30 July 1849, Sandor Patofi and Bem set out from here for the Battle of Segesvar.

In 1854, Szekler martyrs Károly Horváth, János Török and Mihály Gálfi were executed on the Postarét for plotting against the Austrian rule, since 1874 a monument marks the place. In 1861, Marosvásárhely became the seat of Marosszek, in 1876 that of Maros-Torda Country. In 1880 the statue of Bem was inaugurated in Roses Square, in downtown area; in 1893 the statue of Kossuth was as well. The statue of Rakoczi was also inaugurated in 1907. All three were demolished after World War I between 1919 in 1923 after Transylvania became part of Romania.

The city as Maros Vásárhely in 1735

Marus-Vasarhely on the Map of Joseph the second

Places of worship

The Reformed Fortress Church is the oldest church in the town. According to historical evidence, less than a century had passed after the first appearance of the Franciscan order in Transylvania,Hungarian Kingdom, that the Franciscan friars arrived to Marosvásárhely. The building of the church took an entire century, from the middle of the 14th century until the middle of the 15th and it consisted of a monastery building, an older chapel, the church and the steeple. The church was finalized between 1400 and 1450. The church may have been originally decorated with frescos, as traces of mural paintings were found inside. The almost complete disappearance of these paintings is due to the fact that the church became the property of Protestant believers in 1557. The religious reform required for churches to have no paintings, statues or religious frescos.

The Fortress Church is the oldest church in the town

The existence of the Franciscan order in Marosvásárhely was directly affected by the religious reform which was largely spread in Transylvania during the 16th century. In 1557, the influence of the Reformed Church over the Hungarians in the town was so strong that it eventually led to the confiscation of the properties of Catholic monastic orders. Franciscan monks, who until that time had been attending the church in the fortress, were forced to leave town. They returned after nearly two centuries when the political climate had become favorable to Catholicism due to the instauration of the Habsburgs in Transylvania. They bought the land in the center of the town where they built a new church and monastery by 1777. The tower, the only part that is still standing, was added to the church’s facade in 1802 by architect János Topler. In 1971 the municipality decided to demolish the monastery to create the necessary space for the construction of the National Theater and the square in front of it. A new church was built for the Franciscans on Libertăţii street.

At the beginning of the 18th century, one of the most representative Baroque churches of Transylvania was built in the town. St.Jhon the Baptist Church was erected in the North-Eastern part of the city center and belongs to the Roman Catholic parish. The inside of the church is luxurious, with liturgical objects that are true works of art. The main altar, made in 1755 by Anton Schuchbauer and Johannes Nachtigal is of monumental dimensions and has a pseudo-architectural structure. The paintings of the altars in the lateral chapels: Saint Ladislau 1 of Hungary, Saint Joseph, Saint John of Nepomuc, Holy Cross belong to the same Michael Angelo Unterberger. The stained glass windows made by the Türke Company of Grottau were installed in 1898.

The Big Synagogue was built between 1899 and 1900 at the initiative of the Jewish community “Status Quo” and that was considered to be one of the most beautiful synagogues of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The design of the building was drawn up by Gartner Jacob from Vienna and the construction works were coordinated by the Hungarian Pál Soós. The entire edifice is dominated by the central cupola. Each side of the central spire is decorated with a floral rosette similar to the ones on the facade. This type of window is also used several times on the lateral facades. The vast interior is richly decorated, both with shapes and color. The synagogue has 314 seats on the ground floor and 238 on the top floor. The most recent large scale remodeling of the building took place in 2000 when the walls were reinforced and the interior decoration was re-done.

The existence of the Unitarian faith in the town is linked to the name of Ferenc, founder of Unitarianism and the first Unitarian bishop. The political circumstances in Transylvania became favourable for Ferenc Dávid’s activity as the Diet of Torda held between 1557 and 1568 granted freedom of faith to all religions in Transylvania. The Unitarianism became religio-recepta together with all the other Protestant faiths. The king of the state himself, John 2 Sigismund Zapolya became Unitarian. The Unitarian Church was built between 1929 and 1930 next to the old Unitarian prayer house dating from 1869.

Ascension of the Lord Orthodox Cathedral

Lutheran Church

Reformed Church (Libertatii (Szabadi) street)

Unitarian Church

The first fortress in the town was erected in 1492 upon order of  Transylvanian voivode Stephen Bathory, and was accomplished somewhere between 1602 and 1652 under judge Tamas Borsos. Having a pentagon plan, surrounded by a defense wall, the Citadel has seven forts, five of them bearing the names of the guild which – according to tradition – supported its maintenance: the leather dressers’, the tailors’, the butchers’, the ironmongers’, the coopers’. After the Citadel was taken over by the Austrian troops, it became the headquarters of the military garrison based in the town. In the mean time the Baroque style building was built (on the left hand side of the road in front of the entrance gate) and in the second half of the 18th century the construction works of the “barkey” were started, an addition finished in the 19th century. On the occasion of the Târgu_Mureş days – which have as central point of performance the Citadel – a museum center was opened in the gate fort (erected in 1613) presenting the history of the town and of the Citadel.

Entrance to the City Fortress

The Teleki-Bolyai Library is a historic public library and current museum in the town. One of the richest Transylvanian collections of cultural artefacts, it was founded by the  Hungarian Count Samuel Teleki in 1802, at the time when Transylvania was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and has been open to the reading public ever since. It was among the first institutions of its kind inside the Habsburg-ruled Kingdom of Hungary. It houses over 200,000 volumes, of which many are rarities, constituting a comprehensive scientific database. The book collection is divided into several smaller libraries, of which the two main donations are the original 40,000-volume Teleki Library and the 80,000-volume Bolyai Library; the rest, grouped as the Miscellaneous Collection, is made up of several private libraries, volumes previously held by religious schools and those of a Franciscan monastery. Overall, the library constitutes a collection of most traditional types of Transylvanian book.

 LibraryTeleki-Bolyai Library

Romania Picturesqe

Szekler seats were of Judicial Administration Unit Székely Transylvanian mentioned from the third decade of the century XIV.
In the second half of the twelfth century, the region of Transylvania was under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Hungary and was divided in several countries. In terms of administrative-territorial, city inhabited by Székely was organized in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the chairs. The notion of “seats” derive their name from their function of judicial (court seats, wide. Sedesa judiciary), and is constantly used written sources until the beginning of XIV century. Szekler seats had a strong military. Each chair was headed by a captain Seckler (lat. major exercitus, capitaneus) and a judge of the earth (lat. judex SEDIS or judex terrestris), which is then added and royal judge (lat. judex registers). All these administrative-territorial unit were driven in turn by the Committees Székely (lat. Comes Siculorum) function that, in terms of its political importance, was the second dignity in the region of Transylvania.

Ciuc seat

Miercurea Ciuc (Csíkszereda Hungarian, German Szeklerburg) is the capital and largest city of Harghita County, Transylvania, Romania. The city is attested for the first time as Csíkszereda in a letter dated 1558, referring to the weekly fairs held here on Wednesday. By the interwar period was the city’s Romanian name Cicului Sereda, after which the name was translated into its present form.
The first authentic document attesting to the city known as the “city field” is the letter of privileges granted by Queen Izabella, mother of John Sigismund, prince of Transylvania, dated August 5, 1558, in which city residents exempt of taxes due tributes outside the gates High Ottoman.
Construction begins on city April 26, 1623 by order of Francis Miko (1585-1635), adviser to the prince Gabriel Bethlen, diplomat, chronicler, captain seat Ciuc. Fortress is rebuilt in its present form between 1714-1716 under the Imperial General Count Stephan Steinwille event witnessed by the inscription placed above the stone entrance gate of the city.

Franciscan monastery Sumuleu

Franciscan Monastery of the Sumuleu Ciuc was built by John Hunyadi in 1443.The church is dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, is built in baroque and has one of the largest organs in Romania. It is found alongside Baroque altar and a statue of the Virgin Mary with Child.

Franciscan Monastery of the Sumuleu Ciuc is where the annual Pentecost gather hundreds of thousands of faithful Roman Catholics to take part in religious ceremonies occasioned by this event.

Legend says that in 1661 the Turkish-Tatar attacks, church caught fire and the only song that was often not touched by fire was the statue of Our Lady with Child.Seeing this miracle invaders wanted to take the statue with them nor with the power of 800 horses were unable to budge.Then trouble struck a tatar hit the statue with sword and statue bled and wept.

Pilgrimage of Pentecost, the Monastery Şumuleu Ciuc

Romania pictureqe

                                                                   Transilvania

 

                                                           Szeklers-stolen people

 

 

   Known history of Székely down to the dark IX century, when we have strayed Asian hordes on Romanian land, messing boundaries them from the Tisza and Danube Western Middle, after many fierce battles waged and “Latinos” on the one hand, with blachii, Bulgarians and Slavs Salanus Duke, on the other.

         “earth children”invasion

 

   Deployed in Central Asia and settled permanently in search of “new country” (Simon Keza), one by one, the Volga-Don regions, Don-Dnieper (Lebed), Dnieper (“Danapris”), River (“Danastris “) (” Atelkuz “) Hungarians palm (name in their language meaning” earth children “) have undergone numerous military more Roman (” Roman “blakumen, ulaq) on the coast north-Pontic mentioned the stars to Sjonkeim, Egil’s Saga and Asmundar, song Nibelungs, Chronicle of Nestor, Marcianus, Stephen of Byzantium, Euagrios Scholasticus, Theophanes Confessor, Ioannes Mauropus, Godefridus of Viterbium, Oguzname, Hudud of Alam, Gardizi, Vardan etc.. that, subject to the kazari turn, to rebel against them and to accept the Bulgarians (894) to attack the Byzantines. Leaving to buy the Byzantines, Bulgarians have betrayed (895), as that caught “pincer” of their armies, who had driven across the Dniester, the Pechenegs and the Bulgarians called in support and have forced Dnieper, amounted to the north, to Kiev, in permanent contact and conflict with people “out of the Roman Empire” that “all are Christians and … more than the Hungarians but … much less” (Gardizi) – Romans. Urged the varego-slave, joining them the Pechenegs, Slavs (as in “three thousand”), even Wallachian rulers (eg “Bear”) will start looking west Pannonia, was soundly beaten by “volohii and slovianii who lived there “(Nestor), when passing through the Carpathians forests where that evidence over time, were discovered in 1998, two Romanian villages in the mountains and forgotten in the Middle Ages – Mirka and Poroskovo. With Almus (supreme chief) hurt open areas of Carpathian Ukraine and his current fixed “floor” instead appointed a Romanian word – work that had arrived here with a lot of hard work = work – Mukacheve (Chronicle of Nestor, Painted Chronicle of Vienna). Raise other six “cities” around Mukacheve’s (Simon Keza), where confusion (intentional) Hungarian historians with “Siebenbürgen” (seven cities), called on Germans, half a millennium later, Transylvania. 896 attacked the country’s late Roman glory of ungulates, the remnant of Great Moravia, dismantled a year earlier, kill him “go” from there (the term indicates mainly Romanian Romanian Country of ungulates or Unguarului) and Arpad, successor of Almus, marries his daughter to be prevalent. Thus arises the Carpathian Ukraine, “Hungary”, the “unguari” to mean those who master coming from the natives of Ung gave the Tisza and Danube Middle “somewhat mocking” of Arpad and his soldiers. Only in 903, the Hungarians and their allies down in the land of “Salanus”, fixing and a strong base of attack between the Tisza and Danube Bodrog. So began the Hungarian conquest of Pannonia and Hungarian mogerm people ethnogenesis modern .

 

 Szeklers and Hungarian ethnogenesis

 

 

   Component on the new wave of migration in Pannonia, sources state that the Hungarians, the leading component, were warriors try but less numerous, amounting to “108 nations no more.  And others who joined them are or foreign or from slaves” (Simon Keza), so interested tribes, due to their weakness, association, or under the arms and taken in tow wave Hungarian: kazari, kabari, pecenego-Cumans, Bulgars, Slavs and even “Voloh”. In Tisza-Danube region Middle burst over Slavs, Bulgarians and “needle pastores Blachi Romanorum” or “Blasi” living “the master” in the duchy of Salanus, and on the right Danube, over Slavs (Moravia), German (France) Blachi and Romanian ministers timoceni (Vidin run from Diiu or Bulgarians fear and colonized here francs in 816) and “Latin” or “Romans”, ie the local population, belonging to central European Romanity, which connects Eastern Roman (Romans ) and Western, in turn, surviving today only “romansii” (Switzerland). Later, after Christianization, the kings of Buda and Cumans Pecheneg colonize new waves, or “Kune” open their doors to all Western dezmostenitilor strengthen economic and military potential. All they had to contribute, in the crucible Pannonia, the formation (ethnogenesis) Hungarian modern people. But not Szeklers, who remained a distinct population and that, even completely “Hungarianised” today, still preserved their unique name and origin of consciousness.
   Hungarian historical (Anonymus, Simon Keza, Chronicon Pictum etc.) have accredited the idea that “Zaculos” – Szeklers as “remnants of the Huns” who would have continued to live together after the disintegration of Attila’s empire in NE Hungary and NW Romania actual current “the plain of Cigli”. Too small to organize expeditions themselves prey to “duchies” Romanian or Slavic neighbors would be out to meet Hungarian wave, passing through northern Transylvania to Galicia.  A choice dictated by the interest, considered a sufficient reason by some researchers as interested in history, to accredit the idea of ??an approach dictated by the “voice of blood” between Székely and those who had to go down in history under the name Slav “Hungarians”. Although early gestele and Hungarian historians – they took some views of practical interest, political – both peoples attribute the same origin “hunnish” Szeklers is thus a precursor wave as Hungarian, a closer look at the sources, Clio restores truth: today Hungarians are Hungarians, just as the French can be considered Gauls or Romans – Dacians and the Hungarians were a great Asian population evident by the Huns. But what about Szeklers? Or not “remnants of the Huns” before magyarization because of religious or political action of the royalty from Buda, to the sixteenth century, and later, after “Mohacs Vesz” (“Passing of Mohacs – 1526), the reinforced by the Hungarians (the refugees) in Transylvania?

 

                       controversies

 

   In line with Hungarian sources, some authors, generally humanists, they considered “the nation hunnish” (eg A. Verancsics). But others appreciated because the sonority of name, they are “older than the Huns, and so are called scituli, that small Scythians” (Antonio Possevino) and thus “a nation of Scythians” (G. Reicherstorfer, Stephan Taurinus, etc. .) hence the name, often used as derived from “zekel” – “chic”, “ciculi”, “scituli”. For all but, with the exception of Petrus Ranzanus (1420-1492) – Dominican monk Sicilian origin who sees in them the ancient population of Sicily chic – Szeklers came from North Pontic steppes, “Scythian”, the path used by all arisen from distant populations of Asia, including the Huns. According name, “szekelyek” derived from “szkil-sikil” to mean the “Eski Tukce” (“old Turkish”), the people “noble”, as once we thought it would be a minor group Hungarians previous migration, can a tribe of Avars or rather a heterogeneous group of Turkish-Asian elements, left or V-VIII centuries infiltrated the border area of Transylvania, not very important to be remembered among the inhabitants of early chroniclers and the arrival of Hungarian rulers Pannonia “Slavs, Greeks, Teutonicii, Mesianii and Vlachs”. Today however, we are able to say, after centuries of German sources IX-XIII (Annales Francorum kingdom, Poeta Saxo, Annals Fuldense etc.) As Szeklers are certainly descendants Avars, a native of Mongolia and Turkic people related linguistically to the Huns, Pechenegs, uzii, Cumans, Tatar-Mongols, Turks etc., totally different from Hungarians palm.

 

                        descendants of Avars

 
   Avars have appeared in the Romanian etnogenetic space in great migrations of the middle eastern world VI. Initially attracted to the maritime Danube, working, with the predominant role, with the Slavs (sclavinii) hunnish kutrigurii Stalinist historiography and those that forced us to glory and I think that, older or newer studies (Gorman Igor, Nico Zupanici, ON Trubacov, FP Faline, Bratianu etc.), they identified as the Sarmatians, Alans good family – anti (their descendants, osetinii, live today in the Caucasus). While the Slavs, anti, kutrigurii focused on the imperial road to Byzantium, trying to force the Danube, the Avars were drawn on the way north, longobards Germany, settled in Pannonia Gepids crushing power. Longobard offer came at the right time to the Roman Empire as Avars requests for Sunrise to settle south of the Danube (558, 561) were rejected. Led by Baian (558-605), he crushed the Gepidae, but not for the benefit of rebellious nations. It installed themselves here, founding a Kagan between Alps, Carpathians and northern Adriatic, in the year 567. Conquer Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia (570-580), Dalmatia and Illyria in 583, Byzantium imposing pay tribute, then, with the Slavs, devastate the Danube on both sides (587) to Silistra and the whole Balkan Peninsula (592-598). There are times that recorded in the first monument of Romanian history, urging “Torna, torna fratre” (see T. and T. Simocatta Confessor). Only in 601 imperial armies fail to stop, and the West Frankish kingdom are stopped for reunited Clotar II (584-629). Baian weakening after his death, the first Kagan will collapse under the blows of the Slavs of Pannonia that rebellion in 623 led by Samo. Slavs came under control, damage will suffer heavy losses in the siege of Constantinople by them (626). Samo defeated the Franks instead of Dagobert I (629-639), the Wogattisburg (631)-and mastering reinforcing in Pannonia, but at his death the state apart. It is a chance for Avars to the receive new reinforcements from Asia, so that the background the Lower Danube Bulgarian invasion,the damage Kagan is re founded in Pannonia (675-680), reaching frank rival kingdom, and the Carolingian Empire in Central Europe .
    Meanwhile, the Avars were in contact with protoromanii of territories subject but also the east of the Tisza, because, in search of salt, they expanded their control. Archaeological, their presence could be identified isolated Felnac, Sanpetru, Socodor (Arad County), Dumbraveni or Teius (White County). Language, proof of cohabitation, bequeathed us the word zoapan (governor charged with collecting taxes from local communities) who gave the Romanian boss, boss (Mircea Rusu), which was later adopted and the Slavs – pan, and the Hungarians – Ispan and probably Kenda words (Rom. time) and Khan khagan (Kean, Kan), and later taken over by the Hungarians.
    Feeling strong, attacked the French state failure, which led war unleashed against them, until the complete defeat of Avar kagan by Charlemagne (768-814). According to the Annals of French kings, contemporary source, and a German source later (Poeta Saxo), they build upon that base against them, since the 782, mark the border Ostmark (Austria). Avars attempts to abolish “mark of the East” (Austria) failing in 788, Charlemagne prepares counter and the war in 791-796 years, destroy Avar state, extending to border franca of the Middle Danube, in Pannonia. Crossing the river, raiding his armies to chase them Tisa, so that Avars “transTiszam fluvium fugatis”. November expeditions were organized in the years 800 and 805, when German sources recorded in the year 1277 as “Hungarians” were driven over the Tisza “in Walahen unz”. How are called the “Hungarian” for the year 805, by a late spring? Because, in the meantime, the Mukacheve and conquering Hungarians Country ungulates (hence the name “unguari”), remains Avars were placed under their protection. Therefore Annals 895/896 year Fuldense talk about “Avars that call themselves Hungarians.”
    In 896 therefore, have left the place and left the country of ungulates to worship Arpad, the Duke not only palm Hungarians, but also over the multitude of tribes Turan, related Avars. It is when, confirming archaeological research since 1956-1958, as further proof of the origin of damage to the Székely, the decline phase of damage to cultural objects ornamented with griffins cast and shall cease to exist in NW Romania (Kurt Horedt).
    Allies, but not included in the conglomerate of populations which will lead to the genesis of Hungary, Hungarian Szeklers were used, then the Hungarians, as in any alliance between one another harder and worse: at the forefront, during offensives, and the rear guard, to retreat! They will enjoy privileges in return but their military job and will be used as a forward against too numerous native Hungary that royalty can never swallow them whole – Romanians.
    Archaeology, toponymy, puts them in written sources dating X century in Bihar, in Aries, in the center of the Moldovan Romanian voivode in (XI-XII), between Turda and Aiud in Barsa and finally, in the Carpathians where they will be definitely among the Romans colonized and organized the “seats” (szekek-Sedesa) Ciuc (Miercurea Ciuc areas – Csikzeredda, Giurgeu – Gheorgheni – Gyergyó and Casin – Kaszon) Three seats (Háromszék: SEPS, Kezdi, Orba) Odorheiu (Székelyudvarhely ) and Mures (Mároszek).
    Today, considerably strengthened the denationalisation of the Romans themselves Hungarianised, Szeklers live in areas of concentration in central and eastern county of Mures (Mures valley side, the Niraj Valley, Upper Small Tarnava in Harghita – (Odorhei Ciuc Gheorghieni) and Covasna – (Saint George, Covasna, Targu Secuiesc).
    Throughout the Middle Ages but also a good time under German Roman occupation (1699-1806) and Austrian (1806-1867), due to ethnic Romanian belt that has protected mountain environment as adoption, “were kept May untouched than any other nation – reveals the wonder Possevino humanist Antonio (1533-1611) – in that country fortified by nature, thanks to its position in many places inaccessible.’m still mingle among them. “

 

  Szeklers – “special generation” of Hungarians

 

    All scholars, travelers, who crossed the Romanian space condottiers found Szeklers uniqueness, as the Saxons (another element of colonization), implants Romanian Catholic environment.
    Catholicize by Hungarians, accepted as allies, as a “nation” medieval Avars descendants continued to be ethnically different. Because outside of runes (to the Romans, their teachers, had given up when adopting Slavonic, the liturgical language and the Cyrillic alphabet), Szeklers continued to have a language of their own port and customs, still visible in the century XVI, endangered in XVII-XIX centuries and only remember their old one today, in the Ciuc in so effective was the ungurizare, supported primarily by the church, both the Catholic and subsequently, the Reformed. The fact that they still call themselves today, but persistent consciousness Szeklers attest to fundamental differences from the Hungarian population, a distinct ethnic group originating.
    In the sixteenth century, although at first sight “language, like all habits,” he approached the Hungarians (Georg Reicherstorffer), Francesco della Valle Padovan known doctor (? -1545) Could not noticing that “a nation are still barbaric “else” than the Hungarians. “Deeply familiar with the realities of Transylvania, the great humanist scholar Verantius Antonius (Anton Verancsics) (1504-1578) concluded, after an objective analysis as Szeklers “Hungarians differ in almost all the customs, laws and their way of life, outside of religion, and not like at all, neither the language they speak in the ancestors language. “

Romania picturesqe

                                                   Transylvania
                                                   Bârsa Cauntry
    Bârsa, called Carpathian Curvature or Brasov Depression is a historical and ethnographic region in south-eastern Transylvania, Brasov largest city. The name comes from the Bârsa  river, which flows into the Olt River.   
Geographically, Bârsa is a depression disposed inside the Carpathian arch, bordered by the towns Apata north, south Bran, Vladeni Prejmer west and east. It is crossed by numerous rivers and fast mountain rivers, as delimited on a good portion of the Olt River.
    Inhabited since ancient times, the region was donated in 1211 to the Teutonic Knights by King Andrew II of Hungary as a reward for keeping the southeastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary, against Cumans. Teuton’s raised many castles in the area and brought settlers from the Holy Roman Empire to populate the territory. In 1224 the Knights have tried to leave the alliance with the Hungarians and the subordination of the Holy See, and Andrew King evacuated following the order in 1225. Although the teuton’s left the area and were headed to Prussia, German settlers remained here until the twentieth century, founding one of the strongest districts – both in terms of military and economic. Along with Great Union of 1918, Barsa  entered in the Romania component.
    Bârsa is characterized by charming scenery, but also through the walls of fortresses that stand witness to a troubled historical past, which for centuries have lived in the neighborhood together  German, Romanian and Hungarian. From Birs, whose capital is the name of the Brasov (both names probably having the same origin) derived Birsan (Barsan) which means long and rough wool (turcana].    
 

                                                      Brasov
   Turko-Tatar invasions more frequent in Brasov centuries XIII – XV were the majority population was not related to the fertile land of Bartholomew to move the location of Tampa, scaffolding and Warthe hill. Before this there was a dense forest, from the rivulet that ran through the middle of Solomon’s Stones (Graft).    Where it is separated into two, one arm and taking her to the other to Braşovechi Blumăna there an observation tower around which, since 1420, Hall was built, the house. The place was not empty, the monks and nuns came with teutonii built their monasteries here are two: the St. Lawrence and St. Catherine. They were unfortunately destroyed by the Tatars in 1241.
 After 1383, the new location was fortified settlements only trenching, earth walls and palisades. At the end of the fourteenth century was rebuilt in stone enclosure. Gradually, however, the construction of walls and bastions, which have brought fame to Brasov far as the “city of the seven bastions. In total, the walls were 3000 m long, is 12 feet high and thick 1.70 to 2.20 m. In addition to the bulwarks placed every 110 m, they were also defended by 28 towers and powder form square. Today is preserved only in june, two on the south side and 4 on the northwestern side of the city. The walls were double and sometimes – on the north-east side in particular – triple, among them there trenching and earth walls. Between the walls were so-called “pens” (Zwinger), each have mastered the guild. From the fifteenth century, under the supervision of King Sigismund of Luxembourg, the first such building fortifications of the city of Brasov. 
       Brasov fortifications 
   There have been high since the fifteenth century by various guilds, which used them to store goods in peacetime and in times of siege or attack became fortresses. Of the eight original towers, there are still only three full:   

 
       Weavers’ Bastion 
    Located in the southwest corner of the city of Brasov, Bastion, with an area of 1616 sqm. Its walls have a thickness of 4 m and 1 m based on the fourth level of the building. Built by the weavers’ guild, on four levels, with goals by shooting jets of oil and two guard towers, has a unique architectural bastion in the south-eastern Europe. Being spared the great fire of 1689, is preserved in its original form.
    The first construction works took place between 1421 and 1436, the first two levels are high. In 1522 was attested. Between 1570 and 1573 was high at the third floor, and between 1750 and 1910 major restoration was performed after partially collapsed bastion in 1701. In 1908, after which time only served as a warehouse, has become the bastion of the adjacent building (headquarters of the guild), and increasingly more, is used mostly for parties and concerts of opera, thanks to stunning sound quality that gives evidence. In 1950, the Museum was arranged inside the bastion Barsa, the model is exposed to the old city of Brasov, Schei as it was in the late seventeenth century and weavers guild weapons and products.

 

       Blacksmiths’ Bastion
   Located in the northwest corner of the city of Brasov, Blacksmiths’Bastion already existed at 1521. The first documentary is dated but eight years later, in 1529. Since pentagonal shape, the bastion is built on three levels, with gaps for firing fuel oil and the goals could install cannons and small arms (bombing). At first, perhaps the place was a Blacksmith Bastion Tower, shown already in 1521, destroyed by the flood of 1526, then rebuilt in 1527, when the ruins of the tower said first blacksmiths. Bastion will be extended on two occasions after the 1526 and 1668. A “tower of the smiths” is mentioned in the list of weapons in 1562, as being in the neighborhood “Catherine”, between the towers and potters Loaf – unidentified today. On 30 July 1667 another flood caused by heavy rain, destroyed the fortifications of this place, and in 1668 received the Blacksmiths’Bastion its final form. The great fire of 21 April 1689 and transformed the fortress into a wreck, barely being restored after 20 years. Inside, the bastion had wooden galleries supported on consoles. After 1734, will be used only in non-military purposes, such as grain storage and housing. In 1820, the tower instead of blacksmiths, there was a smaller bear – finished by master builder Joseph Jani – Brasov with arms on the frontispiece. Greatly hindered the movement, and this gate was demolished in 1874. Bastion has suffered major repairs to 1709, adding the brick arches. In 1923 the archives were brought bastion in Brasov Council House, and remain here permanently. In 1938, after a while he served mountain of piety, the building was renovated, reaching the form we know today.    

 

       Graft Bastion  

 

    Graft Bastion Bastion in Brasov or Gateway (German Torbastei), as was also called because of its shape, was built between 1515-1521, defended and maintained the guild costs saddlery, being designed to make the connection between the soldiers of the city and the White Tower . Its location, near the middle of the north-west of the city, made the bastion of defense to increase opportunities for the area.    In the sixteenth-century north-western wall of the fortress is still backed by an outer wall. All were captured when the waters came from a channel Schei (on German Graft), which flowed at the foot of the newly built wall. Graft Bastion was designed so that a bridge over the channel.  It was based on a thickness of about 4 feet and was structured on two floors and an attic, equipped with firing holes and oil holes preserved until today.  Access to the White Tower was covered by a bridge that goes up the slope to the entrance to the White Tower where defenders descended a ladder to allow entry into the tower.
   Due to a large flood, following torrential rains on 24 August 1809, outside the enclosure wall was much weakened by washing foundations (because the city walls, the entire amount of rainfall needed to drain Schei along channel Graft). Therefore, the architects of the city have found a solution by supporting the construction of three arches over the creek in 1822. In the twentieth century, the wall was pierced to provide a second exit Corso cinema (now Royal) and when building a house for Friedrich Czell manufacturer, two of the arches are gone, with the portion of the wall which rested . The inscription on the north wall of Graft Bastion, initially in eight rows and – today – largely illegible, could not be restored because it did not identify any copy of it. Renovated in 2004 – 2005, was arranged inside a polling bastion of Braşov County History Museum on “The craftsmen from Brasov – defenders of the city” and a craft shop, then disbanded. The exhibition, located on the second floor of the bastion, includes weapons, armor and munitions used to defend the city, boards with facsimiles of documents and photographs / lithographs Brasov’s medieval fortifications. Also, the route was restored and the White Tower, a series of steps that ascends abruptly Warthe hill slope.

 

others are newly renovated:

 

        Funar Bastion

   Funar Bastion (or Rope) is the first bastion in Brasov mentioned in documents, 1416. The hexagon, the bastion was originally 10 to 12 m in height and was equipped with shooting holes for moving parts. Flat brick arches, whose traces are still visible today, were built later. Bastion had suffered from a fire at 1461 and 1689, the latter causing serious damage to the original architecture. Redone, Funar bastion served as repository for materials. The house, which is seen today was built in 1794, the guild that was in possession of fortification. In 1894, the bastion was sold for 2,000 florins significant amount at that time. It was renovated in 2006.    

 

      Furriers Bastion 
   Mentioned later than the rest of the fortifications of the city of Brasov, it seems that Bastion Tower, Tanners, or as he says, was built around 1452 and entrusted to defend the guild “red tanners. Tower had a semicircular shape, with an open hand toward the Drapers’ Bastion. At first it was just drag and mouth holes for molten pitch. The brick arches are still visible today, but later were made??. Drapers’Bastion fortification communicate with a gallery along the exterior wall. It was renovated in 2005. 

 

      Drapers ‘Bastion
   Drapers ‘Bastion, located in the northeast corner of the city of Brasov, was defended and goldsmiths’ guild built between 1450 and 1455. They have endowed him with the bomb in Prague with three small cannons and 16 harquebus. In 1521 and 1522 are made to work bastion. In 1640, point defense was picked up by draper.
   Built on four levels of galleries of wood, of elliptical shape with a diameter of 16 m, 20 m in height bastion measure. Its walls were 2 m thick based on the first floor had holes and installing small-caliber cannons. Drapers’ Bastion has remained relatively well until today, being strengthened in the years 1961 – 1962 and renovated in 2005.

 

 
Or total dissolved:

 

      Goldsmiths Bastion (1886)
   In 1612, the City Judge, Michael Weiss, decided to raise another outer wall of the city. The plan remained unachieved due to death at the Battle of Feldioara county lord (16 October 1612) against the tyrant Prince Gabriel Bath. In 1632, goldsmiths few craftsmen have reproduced the idea of ??building a new stronghold from Judge Michael Weiss, on the site of the Customs Gate and Main Gate. Goldsmiths ‘Guild had to Drapers’ Bastion defense today, but in 1639, they took another point and they fortified walls. Built in two years, Bastion was approximately middle of the north and northeast of the city. The foundations were dug by residents of Mosquitoes (Dumbrăviţa today), and Tohan Zărneşti. The sand was brought by villagers near the stones and lime were conveyed by those săcelene Braşovechi and villages. Residents of “Fortress” and neighborhoods Blumăna scaffolding and worked directly with their hands to lift the wall and bastion. On 20 October 1646, counsel handed the new bastion of Brasov and neighboring area of defense “for the maintenance and defense ever” goldsmiths’ guild. Hexagon-shaped, and Funar Bastion, Bastion measure 22 m in height. He was shooting holes for small arms and guns, its position, a good view up and away toward Blumăna Brasovechi. It was apparently the only bastion of Brasov arms on the frontispiece, which was indicated as the period of construction: 1639 – 1641 and the name Christian Hirscher juzilor primary and Michael Goldschmidt. In 1728, a fire broke out at the main gate was extended to the bastion, which has affected. In the nineteenth century, to operate a restaurant inside. In 1871, goldsmiths’ guild, greatly depleted, the city sold the bastion of defense and space attached. Bastion was demolished in 1886, was built behind the school’s actual state (1888-1889), later high school “Dr. John Meşotă “, and today the body of T University” Transilvania “of Brasov. 


      Harness bastion (1887) 
   Located in the northwestern city of Brasov, Bastion was a horseshoe-shaped harness, over 40 m long and 14 to 17 m wide. 102 m far outer perimeter, and wall height of 15 m. The walls were measured at over 4 m in thickness, then reduce to two meters. The city weapons inventory since 1562, the bastion belts at that time there were 31 heavy guns (bomb), 5 hand guns, a small cannon and a half quintals of gunpowder. The first documentary mention of the fortress dates from 1525. Like the Smiths and the Weavers’Bastion, Bastion belts have three levels and an observation tower. The fire of 1689 left untouched fortification. Largely ruined, was demolished in 1887, the building’s place Baiulescu House.

 

                                                     Brasov Gates
Classically, Brasov city had four gates:

                                               Catherine Gate from the Schei
   Catherine’s Gate (German Katharinentor) was built to facilitate access şcheienilor in Brasov, the middle side of the Weavers’ Bastion and the Smiths, the site of an old gate dating from the fourteenth or fifteenth century, destroyed by flood 24 August 1526, and from the Turkish invasions. It stretched from the current S Corp “Transilvania” University, where he died gate, far beyond the Schei Gate current. Being situated at the end of Catherine Street – which in turn took its name from the monastery who had been there – the gate was named Catherine. In 1559 the tower was built gate, which is visible today. The square, three-storey building is in the top four towers symbolizing “Jus Gladiator “, a privilege Brasov medieval rulers gave the right to apply the ultimate punishment. Canopy tower is painted in Renaissance style and its architecture is unique in the world, making him a valuable artistic gem. The documents indicate that for each of the eight holes to pull the tower had been bombed in Prague. Gate Tower – now mostly in the ground – has suffered significant damage due to earthquakes and fires of 1689 and 1738.


                                                 Customs Gate (the Monastery)  
   Customs and the Convent Gate, the gateway first of the three gates of the city of Brasov, located on the street today Muresenilor (then Customs Street), was composed of a veritable bastion of a circular shape and a tower that is developed a complex of nearly 100 m. long Formed in the sixteenth century, the gate was strengthened with heavy oak pillars, which băgau with their heads in two holes in the wall. Gate Tower – the oldest part of the fortification, dating from the fourteenth century – was embattled, side town with a sundial. On the frontispiece, Customs Gate present a large picture with colors – the image of Emperor Sigismund, who on 10 March 1395 gave orders to fortify the city. 
   The defense was represented by beaks and mouths for fuel oil and a drawbridge with chains that tragic night. Bastion gate, horseshoe shaped, stretched to the Military Club today, but the fortification walls and tower were ranked Heroes Boulevard. The bastion wall near the tower, there is a pedestrian gate. To lay a corridor within the city vaulted 30 m. long moat in front of the bastion was passed by a wooden drawbridge.  Throughout the interior corridor, the road could be blocked by several gates and bars that made be impregnable bastion. Over the outer gate to the city, the road could be blocked by several gates and bars, the complex is virtually impregnable.    In 1562 holds 33 rifles, 10 shotguns Prague and seven smaller guns. In time of peace, security was provided by a “master gate, armed with eight ministers    On entering the city that bears on 1 March 1600, Michael the Brave. All this bears on the prince left the city on 1 July 1600, after the victorious conclusion of the campaign in Moldova. Beauty gate was strongly affected by the earthquake of 1738, it practically collapsing. It was finally demolished until 1836.  


                                                   Main Gate (a coppersmith)
   The main gate of the city of Brasov is located at the end coppersmith Lane, later the Porte, and today Republic Street. 1519 Fire destroys part of the building, rebuilt between 1522 and 1524 in the form of a semicircular bastion, 100 m long, with holes and holes for drawing molten pitch. In 1537, portions and add a tower, replaced in 1650-1651. The latter have a big clock and was adorned with beautiful frescos. The pedestrians who were passing below the tower turning at right angles through a dark corridor. Following a 100 m long corridor that could be barricaded in several places. In the evening, both sides of the tower is closed the heavy oak doors, move the iron rails. As Customs Gate, the streets coppersmith had a drawbridge over the water. In the months from May to August 1613, the gate was tightened in view of carrying out a siege by troops Gabriel Bath. He was badly affected by fires and earthquakes in 1650 – 1651, 1689 and 1718 (being restored between 1724-1725), but the earthquake of 1802 was decisive for his fate. Being in danger of collapse, the gate was demolished in 1857. Main Gate of Brasov, in his demolition (1857]


                                                    Black  Street Gate 
   A passage less known and used in the city of Brasov, Street Wear Black was today Balcescu. Pomenită since 1464, as “Swarczgas”, then 1578, then the gate was built. Played in use after several decades, in 1785, it was rebuilt between 1788-1789. In 1873, both the outer bastion tower and gate were demolished to allow better access in the barracks “Black”, recently built on this street. 

 

 
                                                    External towers  

                                                       Black Tower 

    Black Tower is one of four observation towers of the City of Brasov built as a fortification independent located outside the walls, over 11 meters high. Located within walking distance of the Blacksmiths’ Bastion on a rock hill Warthe, Black Tower dominates Brasov Şcheii with its dimensions, it must prevent the enemy from the walls near the town, there were more than 5 m of rock (only in 1819 – 1820 passage was widened). Occupying an area of ??50 square meters, the tower is 11 m in height, and measured based on its walls two meters thick. Drawing with six goals on each side of it, arranged in three lines of attack. The interior has three floors and galleries, more recently, the tower have a liaison with the city by a bridge that left up to the Blacksmith’s Bastion. The tower dates from the fifteenth century, was built along with the White Tower. However, the first documentary mention of the tower dates from 1541. No longer retain the original roof, was destroyed by lightning on 23 July 1559, and the fire of 1689 – have blackened walls of the tower and gave the name today. He was destroyed by lightning in 1696, but was restored as of 1735 shows an engraving print. During the plague epidemic of 1756, it appears that the Black Tower was last used as shelter for guards and point guard cordon around the city. In case of danger, a thick iron chain between the rock and stopped communication with after bastion walls
 of the Netherlands. The roof, still existing in 1796, due to adversities time in 1827 made a request for restoration, but because the city did not bring revenues, the application was approved. Only in 1900 the question of restoring the monument, a building being done on the upper walls in 1901. On the night of 3 to 4 July 1991, the southern wall of the tower collapsed after a downpour. Restoration took place in 1996 but barely.


                                                       White Tower
    Built between 1460 and 1494, and today, the White Tower is impressive and massive zvelteţea its architectural lines. Summarizing the data architecture can say open semicircular plan, more than 30 m level difference to the city walls, height: 20 m to 18 m towards the hill town and the wall based on the 4 m and diameter of the tower measuring 19 m. along its walls, the tower has battlements, holes for pitch and balconies supported by brackets carved in stone. Being at 59 m from the wall of the city, communicate with the tower by a bridge that connects the tower and Graft Bastion. He overlooks Blumăna and, with its five floors, was the highest point of the fortification of Brasov. Inside the tower to keep the chimney above a hearth, which could serve to heat the guards and defenders – Tanners guildsmen brazier. In 1678, the Guild purchased tinned obligation to defend the tower, the number of artisans are low. When the great fire of 21 April 1689, led by a strong wind the fire involve the White Tower, which burned, was just renovated in 1723.

 

                                              Blade Tower and Shoemakers Tower
   Near the city of Brasov, at the foot of Tampa, were built in the fifteenth century, two towers on the lookout, the city united by a row of walls that also extend from the towers atop the mountain. Probably from the age of abandonment of a firearm, two observation points were finally removed in the eighteenth century (two prints of the same age have, in turn, Tampa with and without them).
   Blade Tower, located next to the Bastion, had to open towards the scaffold. Today there is no trace left of it. Shoemakers Tower, located above the Drapers’Bastion, and Curmătura Blumăna dominate (the area between Tampa and Snail Hill). Nowadays one can see that there are platform and a good part of the connecting wall that crossed the mountain.


Shoemakers Tower ruins, with a portion of the wall.

 

Romania picturesq

            Transylvania

    Cluj-Napoca County

               St. Michael Church

   Is the oldest religious building in the city and also a representative monument of the site gotic.The curch hall type, with three naves was built between 1349-c.1580 main entrance portal from the second half of the seventeenth century. It maintains parts of the interior painting (fifteenth century). Sacristy is a valuable portal German Renaissance (1528). The pulpit was made monumental baroque German sculptors J. Nachtigall and A. Schuhbauer (1740-1750) . Bell tower built in neoclassical style between 1836-1862.In front of the church is the equestrian statue of Matthias Corvinus made by sculptor John Fadrusz in 1902.

Shrine of the Three Kings from the East

Inside the church,

Crest above the entrance gate

Church altar

Over time, the building has been witness to several important moments: it was named Matthias Corvinus, Queen Izabella signs taught in the chamber of Emperor Ferdinand I. This royal messengers were invested princes of Transylvania, Gabriel Bethlen, Rákoczi Sigismund, Sigismund Báthory and Gabriel Báthory

                    Art Museum

   Installed in the Banffi Palace is a beautiful baroque building, with a facade decorated with sculptures and statues, built between 1774-1785 after the plans of architect Johann Blaumann, modern and contemporary art gallery containing works of Romanian artists of the eighteenth century Transylvania century paintings by Ioan Andreescu, Gheorghe Petrascu, Nicholas Tonitza Ion Jalea, Romulus Ladea and many oters.Universal Art Gallery shows paintings of the school: German, Flemish, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Hungarian, etc..

Bánffy family crest

Views from inside the palace

Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania

   Is arranged in the building ‘Redoult’, Construction of the Empire style (late eighteenth century), which sheltered the Diet of Transylvania (1848-1865). This has been the “Memorandum” (1894) and in 1923 Congress was held general unions in Romania. He had over 40,000 pieces on the occupations of the population in Transylvania, costumes and ancient customs of the various testimonies.

 

   With a wealth (over 100,000 pieces) divided into several sections: a primitive village, Daco-Romanian era, modern-contemporary, Roman lapidary and feudal lapidary.

 

   The statuary group Transylvanian School

   Work of the sculptor Romulus Ladea, depicts three leading representatives of cultural and ideological movement of Romanian intellectuals in Transylvania page: Samuil Micu, Gheorghe Sincai and Petru Maior. The group was near the University “Babes Boliyai” founded in 1872 and initially organized with four faculties (medicine, law, literature and science)

The statuary group Horea, Closca and Crisan

Powered by sculptor Ion Vasiliu, evoke the three leaders of peasant revolt 1784-1785.

Michael the Brave Statue

The creation of Marius Butunoiu

Tailors’Bastion

   The Cluj-Napoca Tailors’ Tower (Romanian: Bastionul Croitorilor din Cluj-Napoca, Hungarian: Szabók bástyája) is located at the southeast corner of the old Cluj-Napoca citadel. It was built in the 15th century and rebuilt between 1627 and 1629, assuming its present form. It was named after the Tailors’ Guild, who took care of and guarded this part of the city. Near the tower — where Baba Novac, general of Michael the Brave and Saski priest, was killed in 1601 by General Basta — there is a statue of Baba Novac.

Home of MATEI CORVIN

   The oldest building preserved in city.Bilding secular Gothic, Renaissance traits she received on the occasion of subsequent renovations. Matthias was born here, who would become King of Hungary. Now it houses the Institute of Fine Arts “Ion Andreescu.

Matthias House is one of the oldest buildings and the only Renaissance palace in Cluj-Napoca.
The building was built in the fifteenth century and is located inside the first enclosure belonging to the old fortress defense.
In this house was born on 23 February 1440, Matthias Corvinus, son of Prince Iancu de Hunedoara. Subsequently, Matthias became king of Hungary in the period 1458-1490, is considered one of the largest Hungarian monarchs. King decided the building exemption from taxes, exemption who have met her and rulers who followed him.
Built in Gothic style, Matei Corvin hause underwent various changes over time and adapt to new styles. Thus, in the first half of the sixteenth century were introduced a number of architectural elements Renaissance . In the late nineteenth century, being in an advanced state of decay, was restored by inserting a series of specific elements of the 1900 style. It was restored again in 1940 by architect new Karoly Kos, and then during the communist period, were removed many of the 1900 amendments.

   Collection of history of pharmacy

   Arranged in the house Hintz-house where he worked building the city’s first pharmacy (1573), shows furniture, pots, chemicals and pharmaceutical instruments.

   The Pharmacy History Collection can be found in the oldest pharmacy building of Cluj-Napoca, named “La Sfântul Gheorghe”, also known as the Hintz pharmacy, dating back to 1573.
The museum opened in 1954; later, in 1963, the Pharmacy Museum changed its name in The Pharmacy History Collection, under the National History Museum of Transylvania.
The museum started with a collection of Transylvanian pharmaceutical objects, owned by Professor Iuliu Orient (1869-1940). The collection was first exhibited in 1904 in one of the exhibition rooms at the Transylvanian Museum (Muzeul Ardelean/Erdélyi Múzeum). This collection containing 1,800 pieces was donated to the museum and it was enriched over time through other several valuable donations that describe the pharmaceutical activity in Transylvania from the 16th century to the 20th.
The room in which drugs were sold is decorated with a baroque mural painting dating back to 1766. This decoration is one of a kind in Romania.
The original furniture is from the 17th century up to the 19th century. Old pharmaceutical recipients, pharmaceutical products, old books and important documents can be found here. The substance room contains over 200 wooden pharmaceutical recipients from the 17th-19th centuries. The pharmacists used this type of recipients to preserve powder from medicinal herbs and some mineral powder. There is also a wooden mobile pharmacy with many labeled medicine bottles contained in its drawers.
The pharmacy’s basement looks like a medieval chemistry laboratory where only the pharmacist and his assistants had access. Tools that were used in the past for the preparations of healing potions are displayed here, amongst with glass retorts, copper distillers, drip device (an installation for extracting tinctures), recipients and bowls made out of bronze and copper, pharmaceutical containers and tin measurement tools, wooden mixers, antique glass, ceramic and wooden recipients, bronze and cast iron jars.

    Well understood, I did not want to upload too many pages but I assure you there are many beautiful things to see but will let you discover them dear friends visiting this realm of legend and fairy tale.