A pious homage to the victims of Bolshevism …

A pious homage to the victims of Bolshevism …

April 1, 1941: The massacre from Fântâna-Albă(White Fountain): approx. 2500 Romanian citizens, who wanted to cross peaceful the border into Romania, were killed by soldiers of the Red Army.
A romanian Katyn…

On April 1, 1941 a large group of people from several villages in the valley of Siret (Pătrăuţii de Sus, Pătrăuţii de Jos, Cupca, Corceşti, Suceveni) ,bearing a white flag and religious symbols (icons, lobe and crosses) , formed a column of over 3,000 peaceful people and went to the new Soviet- Romanian border. At about 3 km from the Romanian borde, Soviet border guards have ordered to stop. After the column ignored the order, the Soviets shot with machineguns directly in the moving group. Survivors were followed by cavalry and slashed with the swords…
After the massacre the wounded were tied to the tails of horses and dragged to 5 mass graves, dug in advance , where they were buried , some of them still alive: the elderly, women, children- alive, dead or wounded. Two days and two nights the earth moved in those graves gave until they were all dead…
Some ” lucky ” were arrested by the NKVD in Hliboca ( Adâncata ) and after horrendous torture, were taken to the hebrew cemetery in that town and cast alive into a mass grave, over which was poured and faded lime .

1965070_680293125343154_913316201_n

 

Romania-minority compatriots

I dedicate this post to my good friend Theodor-Peter  Tencalec belonging of thish people.

                   Ruthenians

The English language exonyms Ruthenian, Ruthene or Rusyn (Russian: Русины, Rusyny; Ukrainian: Русини/Руські, Rusyny/Rus’ki; Belarusian: Русіны, Rusyn: Русины, Rusyny) have been applied to various East Slavic peoples.
Ruthenian is a historical term for ethnic minority in Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary and the Czech lands.
In its narrower senses, Ruthenian is an exonym for ethnic Rusyns and/or inhabitants of a cross-border region around the northern Carpathian Mountains, including western Ukraine (especially Zakarpattia Oblast; part of historic Carpathian Ruthenia), eastern Slovakia and southern Poland.     This area coincides, to a large degree, with a region sometimes known in English as Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина, Halychyna; Polish: Galicja and; Slovak: Halič). The name Ruthenian is also used by the Pannonian Rusyn minority in Serbia and Croatia, as well as Rusyn émigrés outside Europe (especially members of the Ruthenian Catholic Church). In contrast, the Rusyns of Romania are more likely to identify as “Ukrainian”.
During the early modern era, the term was used primarily in reference to members of East Slavic minorities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, namely Ukrainians and Rusyns.
With the emergence of Ukrainian nationalism, during the mid-19th Century, there was a decline in use of the term Ruthenian as an endonym by Ukrainians, and it fell out of use in eastern and central Ukraine. Most people in the western region of Ukraine later followed suit later in the 19th century.
In the Interbellum period of the 20th century, the term Ruthenian was also applied to people from the Kresy Wschodnie in the Second Polish Republic.

483px-001_Kievan_Rus'_Kyivan_Rus'_Ukraine_map_1220_1240

Medieval Kingdom of Kievan Rus’

 

                              Etymology

 

The ethnonyms Ruthene and Ruthenian share their etymological origins in the Rus’ people, as does “Russian”. However, it has never included more than a small minority of Russians.
Ruthenian and Ruthene were originally Latinised exonyms, based on the endonymic term Rusyn an ethnonym applied to peoples speaking the eastern Slavic languages in the broad cultural and ethnic region of Rus’ (Русь), especially the medieval kingdom of Kievan Rus’ and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.With borders that varied greatly over time, they inhabited the area that is now Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of eastern Slovakia, southern Poland, and western Russia, especially the area around Bryansk, Smolensk, Velizh and Vyazma.
Later “Ruthenians” or “Ruthenes” were used as a generic term for Greek Catholic, who inhabited Galicia and adjoining territories until the early twentieth-century; this group spoke Western dialects of the Ukrainian language and called themselves Русины, Rusyns (Carpatho-Russians).
The language these “Ruthenians” or “Ruthenes” spoke was also called the “Ruthenian language”; the name Ukrajins’ka mova (“Ukrainian language”) became accepted by much of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth-century in Austro-Hungarian Galicia. After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term “Ukrainian” was usually applied to all Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia

Austria_hungary_1911

Ruthenians in Austro-Hungary (light green)

Rusini1836

Ruthenians of Carpathians, Galicia, and Podole

Chelm1861R

Ruthenians of Chelm, today in Poland

 

                         Belarusians

After World War II, many Belarusians from the Eastern Borderlands (Kresy) region of pre–World War II Poland found themselves in displaced persons camps in the Western occupation zones of the post-war Germany. At that time, the notion of a Belarusian nation met with little recognition in the West[citation needed]. Therefore, to avoid confusion with the term “Russian” and hence “repatriation” to the Soviet Union, the terms White Ruthenian, Whiteruthenian, and Krivian were used[citation needed]. The last of these terms derives from the name of an old Eastern Slavic tribe called the Krivichs, who used to inhabit the territory of Belarus.

543px-Lange_mitteleuropa_1930 

German map of 1930, now instead of Ruthenian the territory is split to Ukrainian and Belarusian

                           Autonomy

Ruthenians who still identify under the Rusyn ethnonym consider themselves to be a national and linguistic group separate from Ukrainians and Belarusians.

Romania picturesque

                                                   Wallahia

Get over followers of Basarab rulers who contributed as much as one could in the formation of the Roman and reach Mircea the Elder.

Mircea the Elder (Bulgarian: Мирчо Стари Mircho Stari, Romanian: Mircea cel Bătrân, Serbian: Мирча Стари/Mirča Stari, d. 31 January 1418) was ruler of Wallachia from 1386 until his death. The byname “elder” was given to him after his death in order to distinguish him from his grandson Mircea II (“Mircea the Younger”). Starting in the 19th century, Romanian historiography has also referred to him as Mircea the Great (Romanian: Mircea cel Mare).MirceatheElder

Mircea was the son of voivode Radu I of Wallachia and an unknown woman (not Callinica), thus being a descendant of the House of Basarab.He was the father to Vlad II Dracul and grandfather of Mircea II, Vlad the Impaler (Dracula), Vlad Călugărul and Radu the Handsome. All of these would at one time or the other rule Wallachia, with Mircea II and Vlad Ţepeş both being able military commanders (the later became one of the most notorious leaders in history]

Mircea’s reign is often considered to have brought stability to Wallachia. Found in a volatile region of the world, this principality’s borders constantly shifted, but during Mircea’s rule, Wallachia controlled the largest area in its history: from the river Olt in the north to the Danube in the south, and from the Danube’s Iron Gates in the west to the Black Sea in the east.

Mircea strengthened the power of the state and organized the different high offices, promoted economic development, increased the state’s revenue, and minted silver money that enjoyed wide circulation not only inside the country but also in neighboring countries. He gave the merchants of Poland and Lithuania trade privileges and renewed those his predecessors had given to the people of Braşov. As a result, Mircea was able to afford increasing his military power. He fortified the Danube citadels and strengthened “the great army” made up of townspeople and of free and dependent peasants. He also proved to be a great supporter for the Church.
While organizing the country and its institutions, Mircea also formed a system of lasting alliances which enabled him to defend the independence of the country.Through the intermediary of Petru Muşat, the prince of Moldavia, he concluded a treaty of alliance with Władysław II Jagiełło, king of Poland in 1389. The treaty was renewed in 1404 and 1410. He maintained close relations with Sigismund of Luxembourg, the king of Hungary, relying on their common interest in the struggle against Ottoman expansion.

800px-Tara_Rumaneasca_map

His interventions in support of the Bulgarians south of the Danube who were fighting against the Turks brought him into conflict with the Ottoman Empire. In 1394 Beyazid I (also known as “Yıldırım Beyazıt”, “the Thunderbolt”) crossed the Danube river, leading 40,000 men, an impressive force at the time. Mircea had only about 10,000 men so he could not survive an open fight. He chose what today we would call guerrilla warfare by starving the opposing army and utilizing small, localized attacks and retreats (a typical form of asymmetric warfare). On October 10, 1394, the two armies finally clashed at the Battle of Rovine, which featured a forested and swampy terrain, thus preventing the Ottomans from properly spreading their army; Mircea finally won the fierce battle and threw the Ottomans out of the country. This famous battle was later epically described by the poet Mihai Eminescu in his Third Epistle. However, Mircea had to retreat to Hungary, while the Turks installed Vlad Uzurpatorul on the throne of Wallachia.
In 1396 Mircea participated in an anti-Ottoman crusade started by Hungary’s monarch. The crusade ended with the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Nicopolis on September 25. In the next year, 1397, Mircea, having defeated Vlad the Usurper with Hungarian help, stopped another Ottoman expedition that crossed the Danube, and in 1400 he defeated yet another expedition of Turks crossing the country.Giurescu, pp. 368.
The defeat of Sultan Beyazid I by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) at Ankara in the summer of 1402 opened a period of anarchy in the Ottoman Empire and Mircea took advantage of it to organize together with the Hungarian king a campaign against the Turks. In 1404 Mircea was thus able to impose his rule on Dobrogea again. Moreover, Mircea took part in the struggles for the throne of the Ottoman Empire and enabled Musa to ascend that throne (for a brief reign). It was at this time that the prince reached the height of his power.Giurescu, pp. 369
Towards the end of his reign, Mircea signed a treaty with the Ottomans; in return for a tribute of 3,000 gold pieces per year, the Ottomans desisted from making Wallachia a province (“pashalik”).

574px-MirceaCelBatranSeal1390

The seal of Voivode Mircea from 1390, depicting the coat of arms

Battle of Nicopolis

Nicopol_final_battle_1398

The Battle of Nicopolis, as depicted by Turkish miniaturist in 1588

1396-Battle_of_Nicopolis-Hunername-2

Titus Fay saves King Sigismund of Hungary in the Battle of Nicopolis. Painting in the Castle of Vaja, creation of Ferenc Lohr, 1896.

800px-Nikápolyi_csata

Cozia Monastery, founded and necropolis of Mircea the Elder

2006_0610_Cozia_exterior_0562

82204260

82204242

Vlad II

Vlad II (d. December 1447), known as Vlad Dracul (English: Vlad the Dragon), was a voivode (English: duke) of Wallachia. He reigned from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. He was the father of Mircea II, Vlad Călugărul (English: Vlad the Monk), Vlad III Dracula, who became posthumously known by the epithet Ţepeş (English: the Impaler), and Radu III the Beautiful.
Vlad II received the surname Dracul in 1431, after being inducted into the Order of the Dragon, founded in 1408 by the King Sigismund of Hungary (the later Holy Roman Emperor), as part of a design to gain political favor from the Catholic Church and to aid in protecting Wallachia against the Ottoman Empire.

Vlad_Dracul

Vlad II Dracul was a member of the House of Drăculeşti lineage, and son of Mircea “the Old”, Voivoide of Walachia, and was known to have murdered members of the rival princely House of Dăneşti, a not-so-distant relation to his own father’s House of Basarab, and gained power in Wallachia, upon returning from exile in Transylvania in 1436.
The identity of Vlad’s first wife is unknown. His second wife, Princess (Cneajna) Vasilissa of Moldavia, was the eldest daughter of Alexandru cel Bun and paternal aunt of Stephen the Great of Moldavia.
Of his legitimate children, Mircea was the eldest, his mother’s identity being unknown. Vlad Călugărul was the product of Vlad and one of his mistresses, a Wallachian noblewoman called Călţuna. Vlad Ţepeş and Radu were products of his marriage with Cneajna of Moldavia.

In 1431, Vlad Dracul’s brother Alexandru I Aldea took the throne from Dan II, the latter having held it on and off since 1420. In 1436, following Alexandru I Aldea’s death from illness, Vlad Dracul ascended to the throne.

Mircea II ascended to the throne in 1442, as Vlad Dracul was in the Ottoman court negotiating for support from the Ottomans in an effort to better defend his rule against John Hunyadi, the voivode of Transylvania. Following the battle of Marosszentimre (Romanian Sântimbru) in 1442, Hunyadi forcefully entered Wallachia and forced Dracul to submit.[2] In 1443, Mircea II was ousted from the throne by an invading army led by Hunyadi, and was forced to flee. Hunyadi placed Basarab II, son to Dan II, on the throne. However, Basarab II held the throne for only a short time, losing it within a year to Vlad Dracul, supported by armies of the Ottoman Empire. Vlad Dracul had made a treaty with the Ottomans insuring that he would give them annual tribute, as well as sending Wallachian boys to them yearly to be trained for service in their armies. He also had left his two sons, Vlad Tepes and Radu the Handsome as captives.
Mircea II supported his father, but did not support his politics with the Ottoman Empire. Mircea II led Wallachian forces in a successful campaign against the Ottomans with the full knowledge of his father, but with no support or opposition from him. An able military commander, Mircea II successfully recaptured the fortress of Giurgiu in 1445. However, in yet another treaty with the Ottomans, his father allowed the Ottomans to again have control of the fortress in an effort to retain their support of his having the throne, and in an effort to keep his two captive sons safe.
in 1433, the new King of Hungary, Ulaszlo I (also King of Poland as Władysław III Warneńczyk), launched the Varna campaign against the Ottoman Empire, under the command of Hunyadi, in an effort to drive the Turks out of Europe. Hunyadi demanded that Vlad II fulfill his oath as a member of the Order of the Dragon and a vassal of Hungary: Vlad was commanded to join the campaign but declined.
Pope Eugene IV absolved Dracul of his promise, but demanded that he send his son Mircea II instead (it is likely that Vlad II had originally denied the request in an effort to prevent his sons from being convoked). The Christian army was destroyed in the Battle of Varna; Hunyadi escaped the scene, and was blamed by many, including Mircea II and his father, for the debacle. This marked the start of hostilities between Hunyadi on one side and Vlad Dracul and his eldest son on the other.
In December 1447, boyars in league with the Hungarian regent John Hunyadi rebelled against Vlad Dracul II and killed him in the marshes near Bălteni. Mircea, Dracul’s eldest son and heir, was blinded and buried alive at Târgoviște

Vlad the Impaler

Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia (1431–1476), was a member of the House of Drăculești, a branch of the House of Basarab, also known by his patronymic name: Dracula. He was posthumously dubbed Vlad the Impaler (Romanian: Vlad Țepeș pronounced [vlad t’sepeʃ]), and was a three-time Voivode of Wallachia, ruling mainly from 1456 to 1462, the period of the incipient Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. His father, Vlad II Dracul, was a member of the Order of the Dragon, which was founded to protect Christianity in Eastern Europe. Vlad III is revered as a folk hero in Romania for his protection of the Romanian population both south and north of the Danube. A significant number of Romanian and Bulgarian common folk and remaining boyars (nobles) moved north of the Danube to Wallachia, recognized his leadership and settled there following his raids on the Ottomans.

As the cognomen ‘The Impaler’ suggests, his practice of impaling his enemies is central to his historical reputation. During his lifetime, his reputation for excessive cruelty spread abroad, to Germany and elsewhere in Europe. The total number of his victims is estimated in the tens of thousands. The name of the vampire Count Dracula in Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel Dracula was inspired by Vlad’s patronymic

Vlad_Tepes_002

Wladislaus_Dragwlya

signature of the great leader

During his life Vlad wrote his name in Latin documents as Wladislaus Dragwlya, vaivoda partium Transalpinarum (1475).
His Romanian patronymic Dragwlya (or Dragkwlya)Dragulea, Dragolea, Drăculea is a diminutive of the epithet Dracul carried by his father Vlad II, who in 1431 was inducted as a member of the Order of the Dragon, a chivalric order founded by Sigismund of Hungary in 1408. Dracul is the Romanian definite form, the -ul being the suffixal definite article (deriving from Latin ille). The noun drac “dragon” itself continues Latin draco. Thus, Dracula literally means “Son of the Dragon”. In Modern Romanian, the word drac has adopted the meaning of “devil” (the term for “dragon” now being balaur or dragon). This has led to misinterpretations of Vlad’s epithet as characterizing him as “devilish”.
Vlad’s moniker of Țepeș (“Impaler”) identifies his favourite method of execution. It was attached to his name posthumously, in ca. 1550.Before this, however, he was known as “Kazikli Bey” (The Impaler Lord) by the Ottoman Empire after their armies encountered his “forests” of impalement victims.

450px-VladBustSig

Bust of Vlad Tepes, Sighisoara, Romania

Early life

Vlad was born in Sighișoara, Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary (today part of Romania), in the winter of 1431 to Vlad II Dracul, future voivode of Wallachia. Vlad’s father was the son of the celebrated Voivode Mircea the Elder. His mother is unknown, though at the time his father is believed to have been married to Princess Cneajna of Moldavia (eldest daughter of Alexander “the Good”, Prince of Moldavia and aunt to Stephen the Great of Moldavia) but to also keep a number of mistresses.He had two older half-brothers, Mircea II and Vlad Călugărul, and a younger brother, Radu III the Handsome.
Vlad Dracul
In the year of his birth, Vlad’s father, known under the nickname Dracul, had traveled to Nuremberg where he had been vested into the Order of the Dragon.
Vlad and Radu spent their early formative years in Sighișoara. During the first reign of their father, Vlad II Dracul, the Voivode brought his young sons to Târgoviște, the capital of Wallachia at that time.
The Byzantine chancellor Mikhail Doukas showed that, at Târgoviște, the sons of boyars and ruling princes were well-educated by Romanian or Greek scholars commissioned from Constantinople. Vlad is believed to have learned combat skills, geography, mathematics, science, languages (Old Church Slavonic, German, Latin), and the classical arts and philosophy.

Life in Edirne

In 1436, Vlad II Dracul ascended the throne of Wallachia. He was ousted in 1442 by rival factions in league with Hungary, but secured Ottoman support for his return by agreeing to pay the Tribute to the Sultan.
Vlad II also sent his two legitimate sons, Vlad and Radu, to the Ottoman court, to serve as hostages of his loyalty. After the death of Vlad II Dracul, Radu stayed at the Ottoman court.
During his years as hostage, Vlad was educated in logic, the Quran and the Turkish language and works of literature. He would speak this language fluently in his later years.He and his brother were also trained in warfare and riding horses. The boys’ father, Vlad Dracul, was awarded the support of the Ottomans and returned to Wallachia and took back his throne from Basarab II and some unfaithful Boyars.

First reign and exile
In December 1447, boyars in league with the Hungarian regent John Hunyadi rebelled against Vlad II Dracul and killed him in the marshes near Bălteni. Mircea, Dracul’s eldest son and heir, was blinded and buried alive at Târgoviște.
To prevent Wallachia from falling into the Hungarian fold, the Ottomans invaded Wallachia and put young Vlad III on the throne. However, this rule was short-lived as Hunyadi himself now invaded Wallachia and restored his ally Vladislav II, of the Dănești clan, to the throne.
Mehmed II
Vlad fled to Moldavia, where he lived under the protection of his uncle, Bogdan II. In October 1451, Bogdan was assassinated and Vlad fled to Hungary. Impressed by Vlad’s vast knowledge of the mindset and inner workings of the Ottoman Empire as well as his hatred of the new sultan Mehmed II, Hunyadi reconciled with his former rival and made him his advisor.
After the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II in 1453, Ottoman influence began to spread from this base through the Carpathians, threatening mainland Europe, and by 1481 conquering the entire Balkans peninsula. Vlad’s rule thus falls entirely within the three decades of the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.
In 1456, three years after the Ottomans had conquered Constantinople, they threatened Hungary by besieging Belgrade. Hunyadi began a concerted counter-attack in Serbia: while he himself moved into Serbia and relieved the siege (before dying of the plague), Vlad led his own contingent into Wallachia, reconquered his native land and killed Vladislav II in hand-to-hand combat.

405px-Sarayi_Album_10a

Mehmed II

Internal policy
Vlad found Wallachia in a wretched state: constant war had resulted in rampant crime, falling agricultural production, and the virtual disappearance of trade. Regarding a stable economy essential to resisting external enemies, he used severe methods to restore order and prosperity.
Vlad had three aims for Wallachia: to strengthen the country’s economy, its defense, and his own political power. He took measures to help the peasants’ well-being by building new villages and raising agricultural output. He understood the importance of trade for the development of Wallachia. He helped the Wallachian merchants by limiting foreign merchant trade to three market towns: Târgșor, Câmpulung and Târgoviște.
Vlad considered the boyars the chief cause of the constant strife as well as of the death of his father and brother. To secure his rule he had many leading nobles killed. He also gave positions in his council which had traditionally belonged to the greatest boyars to persons of obscure or foreign origin who would be loyal to him alone. For lower offices, Vlad preferred knights and free peasants to boyars. In his aim of fixing up Wallachia, Vlad issued new laws punishing thieves. Vlad treated the boyars with the same harshness, believing them guilty of weakening Wallachia through their personal struggles for power.
The army was also strengthened. He had a small personal guard, mostly made of mercenaries, who were rewarded with loot and promotions. He also established a militia or ‘lesser army’ made up of peasants called to fight whenever war came.
Vlad Dracula built a church at Târgșor (allegedly in the memory of his father and older brother who were killed nearby), and he contributed with money to the Snagov Monastery.

War with the Ottomans
In 1459, Pope Pius II called for a new crusade against the Ottomans, at the Congress of Mantua. In this crusade, the main role was to be played by Matthias Corvinus, son of John Hunyadi (János Hunyadi), the King of Hungary. To this effect, Matthias Corvinus received from the Pope 40,000 golden coins, an amount that was thought to be enough to gather an army of 12,000 men and purchase 10 Danube warships. In this context, Vlad allied himself with Matthias Corvinus, with the hope of keeping the Ottomans out of the country (Wallachia was claimed as a part of the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Mehmed II).

Theodor_Aman_-_Vlad_the_Impaler_and_the_Turkish_Envoys
Vlad the Impaler and the Turkish Envoys. Painting by Theodor Aman.
Later that year, in 1459, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II sent envoys to Vlad to urge him to pay a delayed tribute[7] of 10,000 ducats and 500 recruits into the Ottoman forces. Vlad refused, because if he had paid the ‘tribute’, as the tax was called at the time, it would have meant a public acceptance of Wallachia as part of the Ottoman Empire. Vlad, just like most of his predecessors and successors, had as a primary goal to keep Wallachia as independent as possible. Vlad had the Turkish envoys killed on the pretext that they had refused to raise their “hats” to him, by nailing their turbans to their heads.
Meanwhile, the Sultan received intelligence reports that revealed Vlad’s domination of the Danube. He sent the Bey of Nicopolis, Hamza Pasha, to make peace and, if necessary, eliminate Vlad III.
Vlad Țepeș planned to set an ambush. Hamza Pasha, the Bey of Nicopolis, brought with him 1000 cavalry and when passing through a narrow pass north of Giurgiu, Vlad launched a surprise attack. The Wallachians had the Turks surrounded and defeated. The Turks’ plans were thwarted and almost all of them caught and impaled, with Hamza Pasha impaled on the highest stake to show his rank.
In the winter of 1462, Vlad crossed the Danube and devastated the entire Bulgarian land in the area between Serbia and the Black Sea. Disguising himself as a Turkish Sipahi and utilizing the fluent Turkish he had learned as a hostage, he infiltrated and destroyed Ottoman camps. In a letter to Corvinus dated 2 February, he wrote:’I have killed peasants men and women, old and young, who lived at Oblucitza and Novoselo, where the Danube flows into the sea, up to Rahova, which is located near Chilia, from the lower Danube up to such places as Samovit and Ghighen. We killed 23,884 Turks without counting those whom we burned in homes or the Turks whose heads were cut by our soldiers…Thus, your highness, you must know that I have broken the peace with him’ .

In response to this, Sultan Mehmed II raised an army of around 60,000 troops and 30,000 irregulars, and in spring of 1462 headed towards Wallachia. Commanding at best only 30,000 to 40,000 men (depending of the source),Vlad was unable to stop the Ottomans from crossing the Danube on June 4, 1462 and entering Wallachia. He constantly organized small attacks and ambushes on the Turks, such as The Night Attack when 15,000 Turks were killed.This infuriated Mehmed II, who then crossed the Danube. With the exception of some Turkish references all the other chronicles at the time that mention the 1462 campaign state that the Sultan was defeated.[citation needed] Apparently, the Turks retreated in such a hurry that by July 11, 1462 the Sultan was already in Adrianopolis.[citation needed] According to the Byzantine historian Chalcocondil,[citation needed] Radu, brother of Vlad III and ingratiate of the Sultan, was left behind in Targoviste with the hope that he would be able to gather an anti-Vlad clique that would ultimately get rid of Vlad as Voivode of Wallachia and crown Radu as the new puppet ruler.

Vlad the Impaler’s attack was celebrated by the Saxon cities of Transylvania, the Italian states and the Pope. A Venetian envoy, upon hearing about the news at the court of Corvinus on 4 March, expressed great joy and said that the whole of Christianity should celebrate Vlad Țepeș’s successful campaign. The Genoese from Caffa also thanked Vlad, for his campaign had saved them from an attack of some 300 ships that the sultan planned to send against them.

VladOriginal

Transylvanian Saxon engraving from 1462 depicting Vlad Țepeș

Die_geschicht_dracole_waide_-_10
A woodcut depicting Vlad Țepeș published in Nuremberg in 1488 on the title page of the pamphlet Die geschicht dracole waide.

Defeat

Vlad’s younger brother Radu cel Frumos and his Janissary battalions were given the task of leading the Ottoman Empire to victory at all expense by Sultan Mehmet II. After the Sipahis’ incursions failed to subdue Vlad, the few remaining Sipahi were killed in a night raid by Vlad III in 1462. However, as the war raged on, Radu and his formidable Janissary battalions were well supplied with a steady flow of gunpowder and dinars; this allowed them to push deeper into the realm of Vlad III. Radu and his well-equipped forces finally besieged Poenari Castle, the famed lair of Vlad III. After his difficult victory Radu was given the title Bey of Wallachia by Sultan Mehmed II.
Vlad III’s defeat at Poenari was due in part to the fact that the Boyars, who had been alienated by Vlad’s policy of undermining their authority, had joined Radu under the assurance that they would regain their privileges. They may have also believed that Ottoman protection was better than Hungarian. It was said as well that Radu (through his spies or traitors) found the place where some Boyars’ families were hidden during the war (probably some forests around Snagov) and blackmailed them to come to his side.
By 8 September, Vlad had won another three victories, but continuous war had left him without any money and he could no longer pay his mercenaries. Vlad traveled to Hungary to ask for help from his former ally, Matthias Corvinus. Instead of receiving help, he found himself arrested and thrown into the dungeon for high treason. Corvinus, not planning to get involved in a war after having spent the Papal money meant for it on personal expenses,forged a letter from Vlad III to the Ottomans where he supposedly proposed a peace with them, to give an explanation for the Pope and a reason to abandon the war and return to his capital.

Captivity in Hungary
Vlad was imprisoned at Oratia, a fortress located at Podu Dâmboviței Bridge. A period of imprisonment in Visegrád near Buda followed, where the Wallachian prince was held for 10 years. Then he was imprisoned in Buda.
The exact length of Vlad’s period of captivity is open to some debate, though indications are that it was from 1462 until 1474. Diplomatic correspondence from Buda seems to indicate that the period of Vlad’s effective confinement was relatively short. Radu’s openly pro-Ottoman policy as voivode probably contributed to Vlad’s rehabilitation. Moreover, Ștefan cel Mare, Voievod of Moldavia and relative of Vlad intervened on his behalf to be released from prison as the Ottoman pressure on the territories north of the Danube was increasing.

Conversion to Roman Catholicism
Vlad III, the Impaler, converted to Roman Catholicism from Orthodoxy in 1475 while imprisoned by King Matthias of Hungary. King Matthias agreed to release Vlad from prison, only if he renounced his beloved Orthodox religion, and married Countess Ilona Szilagy, the Hungarian king’s cousin. It wasn’t a difficult decision to make; Vlad loved Valachia, and wanted nothing more than to be back home again. So, he begrudgingly took the hand of the King’s relative, and converted to Catholicism; he died soon after.

360px-Pilatusdracula

Third reign and death
After Radu’s sudden death in 1475, Vlad III declared his third reign in 26 November 1476. Vlad began preparations for the reconquest of Wallachia in 1476 with Hungarian support. Vlad’s third reign had lasted little more than two months when he was assassinated.The exact date of his death is unknown, presumably the end of December 1476, but it is known that he was dead by 10 January 1477. The exact location of his death is also unknown, but it would have been somewhere along the road between Bucharest and Giurgiu. Vlad’s head was taken to Constantinople as a trophy, and his body was buried unceremoniously by his rival, Basarab Laiota, possibly at Comana, a monastery founded by Vlad in 1461.The Comana monastery was demolished and rebuilt from scratch in 1589

Romania picturesqe

                      Wallachia

 

Foundation of Wallachia

The foundation of Wallachia (Romanian: Descălecatul Ţării Româneşti), that is the establishment of the first independent Romanian principality, was achieved at the beginning of the 14th century, through the unification of smaller political units that had existed between the Carpathian Mountains, and the Rivers Danube, Siret and Milcov.
Prior to the consolidation of Wallachia, waves of nomadic peoples – the last of them being the Cumans and the Mongols – rode across the territory.The territory became a frontier area between the Golden Horde (the westernmost part of the Mongol Empire) and the Kingdom of Hungary after 1242.The Romanians in Muntenia, east of the Olt River, had to pay tribute to the Mongols; and west of the river, in Oltenia, they were oppressed by the Bans of Severin, appointed by the Kings of Hungary. The Golden Horde’s domination decreased in the region at the end of the 13th century, and at that time the Kingdom of Hungary also underwent a strong political crisis.[8] These events enabled the incipient states of the territory to consolidate their autonomy.
One Romanian tradition records that Wallachia was founded when a certain Radu Negru (‘Radu the Black’) arrived from the Făgăraş region in the 1290s after crossing the Transylvanian Alps with “a great many following him”. More credible is the report that some Romanian lords in the Olt and Argeş valleys chose as leader one of their number, a certain Basarab.
It was Voivode Basarab I (c. 1310–1352) who broke off with the Kingdom of Hungary and refused to accept the king’s suzerainty.Basarab I received international support and the recognition of the autonomy of Wallachia due to his great military victory over King Charles I of Hungary (1301–1342) at Posada on November 12, 1330. The Metropolitan See of Wallachia, directly subordinated to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, was set up during the reign of Basarab I’s son, Nicolae Alexandru (1352–1364). The first silver and bronze coins were minted in Wallachia in 1365.

In the mists of time

Bezerenbam

Bezerenbam seems to be a Wallachian ruler mentioned in 1241 in the Persian chronicle of Fazel-Ullah-Raschid, with Mişelav. Country Ilaut prince was probably where they met Tatars during their invasion. Some researchers assume that was the predecessor of Litovoi, but not hazardează others in such statements due to the route difficult to determine, according to reports chronicle:
“Ordul, through Ilaut country has met and beat Bezerenbam. [And still Budjek] Sassanilor Mountains pass to enter the Kara-Ulag, karaulaghilor peoples faces, move mountains and enters the land of Mişelav, which beat the enemy that awaited him.”

Litovoi

Litovoi,also Litvoy, was a Vlach voivode in the 13th century whose territory comprised northern Oltenia (Romania).
He is mentioned for the first time in a diploma issued by king Béla IV of Hungary (1235–1270) on 2 July 1247.The diploma granted territories to the Knights Hospitaller in the Banate of Severin and Cumania, “with the exception of the land of the kenazate of Voivode Litovoi,” which the king leaved to the Vlachs “as they had held it”.
The king’s diploma also refers to the kenazates of Farcaş and John and to a certain voivode Seneslau.Although the names of Litovoi and Seneslau are of Slavic origin, they are expressly said to be Vlachs (Olati) in the king’s diploma.Bulgarian historian Vasil Zlatarski, based on an information[clarification needed] of Rashid-al-Din and other sources[clarification needed], suggests that the voivodeship of Litovoi was under the suzerainty of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
It seems that Litovoi was the most powerful of all the above local rulers.His territories were exempted from the grant to the knights,but half of the royal taxes generated by his land (terra Lytua) was assigned to the Hospitallers – except for the income from the Haţeg district (terra Harszoc in the diploma’s only surviving, papal copy), which the king kept all for himself. According to the Romanian historian Ioan Aurel Pop, the king had grabbed Haţeg from Litovoi shortly before 1247.
In 1277 (or between 1277 and 1280),Litovoi was at war with the Hungarians over lands king Ladislaus IV of Hungary (1272–1290) claimed for the crown, but for which Litovoi refused to pay tribute.Litovoi was killed in battle.This event is recounted in the king’s letter of grant of 8 January 1285, in which king Ladislaus IV donated villages in Sáros County (today in Slovakia) to Master George, son of Simon, who had been sent against Litovoi.

 

Bărbat

Bărbat was the brother and successor of voivode Litovoi whose territory had comprised northern Oltenia (Romania).
In 1277(or between 1277 and 1280), Litovoi renounced fealty to king Ladislaus IV of Hungary (1272–1290)when the king claimed lands for the crown, but Litovoi refused to pay tribute for them.King Ladislaus IV dispatched a punitive force,and Litovoi was killed during the battle against the Hungarian army.Bărbat was taken prisoner and sent to the royal court where he was forced not only to pay ransom but also to recognize Hungarian rule.After Bărbat accepted Hungarian suzerainty under the stress of circumstances, he returned to his country.
All these events are recounted in the king’s letter of grant of 8 January 1285, in which king Ladislaus IV donated villages in Sáros County (today in Slovakia) to Master George, son of Simon, who had been sent against Litovoi.

Basarab I of Wallachia

Basarab I the Founder (Romanian: Basarab Întemeietorul, also Basarab I the Great, Basarab cel Mare;was voivode or prince of Wallachia (c. 1310/1319–1352).His rise seems to have taken place in the context of the war between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Orthodox states in the north of the Balkan Peninsula.Around 1324 Basarab became a vassal of King Charles I of Hungary (1308–1342), but later the king called him ‘unfaithful’ on the pretext that Basarab had occupied crown territories.
Basarab I’s name was originally Basarabai and lost the ending -a when it was borrowed into Romanian. The name is of Cuman or Pecheneg[5] origin and most likely meant “father ruler”. Basar was the present participle of the verb “to rule”, derivatives attested in both old and modern Kypchak languages. The Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga believed the second part of the name, -aba (“father”), to be an honorary title, as recognizable in many Cuman names, such as Terteroba, Arslanapa, and Ursoba.
In 1330 King Charles I launched an expedition into Wallachia to restore his authority over that area.On November 12, after three days of fighting, Basarab defeated the Hungarian forces at the battle of Posada.The battle marked the end of Hungarian rule and the appearance of the first independent Romanian principality.
Basarab founded the first Romanian ruling dynasty which was named after him.
From the mid-14th century onwards his name appears in Serbian, Hungarian, Moldavian and Polish sources as the name of Wallachia, and from the 15th century as a name for the territory between the lower reaches of the rivers Prut and Dniester. Bessarabia became the name of the whole land between the Prut and the Dniester ( today’s Republic of Moldova) only after the Russian conquest of the area in 1812.

Descent

Basarab was the son of a local potentate called Thocomerius whose status cannot be specified.Several Romanian historians suggest that Thocomerius followed Bărbat(the latter had been mentioned in a letter of grant of 8 January 1285 issued by King Ladislaus IV of Hungary as the brother and successor of Litovoi, a voivode in modern Oltenia).
Basarab was expressly stated to be a Romanian (Vlach); King Charles I of Hungary speaks of him as ‘our unfaithful Vlach’.
The linguist Sorin Paliga suggests that – despite many opposite hypotheses – his name may be one of the Thracian anthroponomical relics in Romanian, since the root bas-, bes- is well attested in Thracian (cf. Albanian besë ‘creed, faith’). He thinks that the name may be the continuation of the similar Thracian names (e.g., Bassaros, Bassos, Bassus) and may be connected to Bassarái (a garment of Bacchus priestesses).

Vassal of the king of Hungary

Toward the middle of the 13th century voivodates dependent on the Kingdom of Hungary began to form on the territories of future Wallachia, but evidence shows that they soon sought independence from the Hungarian drown. The trend toward unification seems to have begun with Litovoi who was at war with the Hungarians in 1277 and was killed in battle.

The Kingdom of Hungary underwent a strong political crisis at the end of the Árpád dynasty . The Golden Horde’s domination also decreased in the territories between the Carpathian Mountains and the river Danube at the end of the 13th century.These enabled the states in the sub-Carpathian regions to consolidate their autonomy and to progressively extend their authority over the Danube plains.

Basarab was a vassal of King Charles I of Hungary, who called him‘our voivode of Wallachia’in a diploma issued on 26 July 1324. He became the king’s vassal probably after 1321, because it was towards the end of 1321 or the beginning of 1322 when the king personally lead a campaign to the Banat that resulted in his recapture of the castle of Mehadia from the rebel Vejteh family. Basarab, however, was already referred to as ‘Basarab of Wallachia, unfaithful to the king’s Holy Crown’ in a diploma issued on 18 June 1325. The diploma also narrates that a certain Stephen, son of Parabuh, a Cuman count in Hungary, in the course of a dispute, stated that Basarab’s strength exceeded that of the Hungarian king himself.

The Hungarian historian István Vásáry suggests that the king must have referred to him as a rebellious vassal because Basarab had occupied the Banate of Severin, a province of the Kingdom of Hungary on the territory of modern Oltenia.The Romanian historian Tudor Sălăgean thinks that by 1325 Basarab had already been in possession of the strategic fortress of Severin as a result of a peace treaty between Hungary and Wallachia in 1324.Nevertheless, between 1324 and 1330 no reference can be found in the sources to any ban of Severin, so it must have been during these years that Basarab seized the province.

The fact that Pope John22 (1316-1334) addressed Basarab, in 1327, as a ‘devoted Catholic prince’ and praised his actions against the unfaithful seems to show some collaboration between the Romanian voivode and the Catholic world, but the precise details are missing

The battle of Posada (Viennese copy of Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle)

The battle of Posada (Viennese copy of Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle)

The battle of Posada and its background

Basarab gave his daughter in marriage to Ivan Alexander, a nephew of Tzar  Michael Shishman of Bulgaria (1323–1330) who was an enemy of the Hungarian king. In a document issued on 27 March 1329, Basarab was mentioned among King Charles I’s enemies alongside the Bulgarians, the Serbs and the Tatars who constantly attacked the Hungarian confines. In 1330, Basarab took part in the military campaign Tzar Michael Sishman launched against Serbia, which ended on July 18 withthe Serb victory at Velbazhd  .

Immediately following the Serbian defeat of the Bulgarians and Romanians at Velbazhd, King Charles I made an expedition against Basarab.When the Banate of Severin was retaken, Basarab offered to pay yearly tribute and 7,000 silver marks in compensation, and to recognize the king’s sovereignty; but his offers were rejected, and the king advanced into Wallachia as far as Curtea de Arges. However, the king was eventually forced to withdraw toward Transylvania without having engaged the Romanian army in battle, because difficulties rose in the provision of food supplies.

But a large contingent of Wallachian soldiers was waiting for the Hungarians at Posada, and as they were winding their way through a narrow valley, the Hungarians found themselves trapped. On November 12, after three days of fighting, the Hungarians were soundly defeated, the king managing with difficulty to escape with his life.

King Charles I fleeing from the battle at Posada

The independent Wallachia

The victory of 1330 sanctioned the independence of Wallachia from the Hungarian crown and also essentially altered its international position.Only a few month after his great victory, in February, 1331, Basarab contributed to the establishment of his son-in-law, Ivan Alexander on the throne of the tsars of Tarnova.In 1331-32, Wallachian troops supported the Bulgarians in a victorious war against Byzantium. During the same period Basarab seems to have regained the fortress of Severin.

A new Hungarian offensive took place between 1343 and 1345, after King Charles’ death and the coronation of his son King Louis I .This time, Basarab lost the fortress of Severin and his son, Nicolae Alexandru, probably associated to the throne, accepted paying the homage of vassalage to the king of Hungary.

Here are buried the first Wallchians princes ,and dates from the 70s.[Curtea de arges].Construction of the church began in the reign of Basarab I, to be continued by Nicholas Alexander (1352 – 1364) and end with mural paintings, mostly kept to this day, under the rule of Vlaicu Voda (1364-1377).

Romania picturesqe

Transilvania

Szekelyland

Mures seat

The current Romanian name of the city,Târgu Mureş, is the equivalent with the Hungarian Marosvásárhely with both meaning “market on the Mures (Maros) [River]” In Romanian, târg means “market” and, in Hungarian, vásárhely means “marketplace”. The HungarianMarosvásárhely is sometimes shortened toVásárhely.

The first written reference to the city was in the Latin Novum Forum Siculorum in 1332 followed by mention as Sekulvasarhel(modern Hungarian: Székelyvásárhely), meaning “new market of the Szekelys”, in 1349.Other Latin names for the town included Agropolis and Areopolis.

In 1616, Gabriel Bethlen gave the nameMarosvásárhely to the newly upgraded royal free city. The Romanian name for the city,Oşorhei was a phonetic derivation fromVásárhely while the German name for the town, Neumarkt am Mieresch (also shortened to Neumarkt or Marktstadt; inTransylvanian saxon, Nai Mark or Nai Muark), is a translation of Marosvásárhely.

Other historical Romanian names for the town besides Oșorhei were Mureș-Oșorhei and Tîrgu Mureşului; other historical Hungarian names in addition toSzékelyvásárhely included Újszékelyvásár and Újvásár.

After World War I, Marosvásárhely became part of Romania and was renamedOșorheiu. The name Târgu Mureș became common in the interwar period. After, World War II, the spelling of the city’s name was changed to Tîrgu Mureș following a 1953 spelling reform that replaced the letters a with i in all words. Another spelling reform in 1993 replaced the letters î with â in many words and the city has been officially spelt “Târgu-Mureș”.

History

The city was first documented in 1332 in the papal registry under the name Novum Forum Siculorum, and as Sekulvasarhel(Székelyvásárhely) in 1349. On the place of its Castle Church, the Dominican’s church stood until the Mongol invasion, when it was destroyed. In its place, the Franciscans built a new Gothic church in 1260, which was completed in 1446. Since 1439 the town was the scene of the session of parliament (diet) 36 times. In 1405, the King of Hungary Szigismund of Luxembourg granted the city the right to organize fairs. In 1470 King Mattias Corvinus granted the first judicial privilege to the city, and in 1482 declared the city a royal settlement. In 1492, wayvoda István Báthory strengthened its monastery with fortifications, this was a pentagon-shaped outer castle tower. In 1506, the troops of Pál Tomori were beaten by the Szeklers rising against the payment of an extraordinary Ox tax imposed on them on occasion of the birth of Louis of Hungary. In 1557, the Reformed Church College (i.e. Presbyterians) was established as the oldest Hungarian school of Transylvania. In 1571, the session of Transylvanian parliament under prince John the secind Sigismund Zapolya accepted the free preach of the word of God, including the Unitarian Church. In 1600–1601, as a result of the siege of Giorgio Basta, the fortress turned to ruins. In 1602, the troops of Gergely Németh put on fire the remaining houses of the town, therefore, in 1602 the reconstruction of the fortress was started further the advice of mayor Tamas Borsos, but it was actually built between 1614 and 1653. Mozes Szekey the only prince of Szekler origin visited the city in 1603, when liberated Transylvania from foreign domination. In 1616, it was granted the status of a free royal city under the name of Maros-Vásárhely by prince (fejedelem) Gabor Bethlen. In 1658, Turkish and Tartarian troops invaded and burned it, 3000 people were taken into captivity. In 1661, as no one show willingness to accept the duty of prince, under pressure from pasha Ali, Mihaly Apafi was elected prince here. In 1662, resulting from the negligence of the Turkish military residing here, the city was almost completely burnt down. In 1687, it was devastated by German imperial troops.

In 1704, the Kuruc troops of Pál Kaszás occupied the fortress, which was re-occupied by Lőrinc Pekry from the labanc in 1706. On 5 April 1707, Francis the second Rakoczi was raised to the chair of princes. In 1707 it was struck by pest, more than 3500 people died, the black death renewed in 1709, 1719 and in 1738–39. The city received a major boost to its social and economic life when it became home to supreme court of justice of the  Principality of Transylvania in 1754. In 1802, the Teleki Library founded by count iSamuel Teleki was opened for the public with 40.000 volumes.

Avram Iancu, the leader of the 1848 Romanian revolution in Transylvania, was a young lawyer in the city of Marosvásárhely before engaging in the fight for the rights of Romanians living in Transylvania. On 4 November 1848, the Szekler troops were beaten by the Austrian imperial troops under its walls, and the city was also captured. On 13 January 1849 the troop of major Tolnay recaptured it. On 30 July 1849, Sandor Patofi and Bem set out from here for the Battle of Segesvar.

In 1854, Szekler martyrs Károly Horváth, János Török and Mihály Gálfi were executed on the Postarét for plotting against the Austrian rule, since 1874 a monument marks the place. In 1861, Marosvásárhely became the seat of Marosszek, in 1876 that of Maros-Torda Country. In 1880 the statue of Bem was inaugurated in Roses Square, in downtown area; in 1893 the statue of Kossuth was as well. The statue of Rakoczi was also inaugurated in 1907. All three were demolished after World War I between 1919 in 1923 after Transylvania became part of Romania.

The city as Maros Vásárhely in 1735

Marus-Vasarhely on the Map of Joseph the second

Places of worship

The Reformed Fortress Church is the oldest church in the town. According to historical evidence, less than a century had passed after the first appearance of the Franciscan order in Transylvania,Hungarian Kingdom, that the Franciscan friars arrived to Marosvásárhely. The building of the church took an entire century, from the middle of the 14th century until the middle of the 15th and it consisted of a monastery building, an older chapel, the church and the steeple. The church was finalized between 1400 and 1450. The church may have been originally decorated with frescos, as traces of mural paintings were found inside. The almost complete disappearance of these paintings is due to the fact that the church became the property of Protestant believers in 1557. The religious reform required for churches to have no paintings, statues or religious frescos.

The Fortress Church is the oldest church in the town

The existence of the Franciscan order in Marosvásárhely was directly affected by the religious reform which was largely spread in Transylvania during the 16th century. In 1557, the influence of the Reformed Church over the Hungarians in the town was so strong that it eventually led to the confiscation of the properties of Catholic monastic orders. Franciscan monks, who until that time had been attending the church in the fortress, were forced to leave town. They returned after nearly two centuries when the political climate had become favorable to Catholicism due to the instauration of the Habsburgs in Transylvania. They bought the land in the center of the town where they built a new church and monastery by 1777. The tower, the only part that is still standing, was added to the church’s facade in 1802 by architect János Topler. In 1971 the municipality decided to demolish the monastery to create the necessary space for the construction of the National Theater and the square in front of it. A new church was built for the Franciscans on Libertăţii street.

At the beginning of the 18th century, one of the most representative Baroque churches of Transylvania was built in the town. St.Jhon the Baptist Church was erected in the North-Eastern part of the city center and belongs to the Roman Catholic parish. The inside of the church is luxurious, with liturgical objects that are true works of art. The main altar, made in 1755 by Anton Schuchbauer and Johannes Nachtigal is of monumental dimensions and has a pseudo-architectural structure. The paintings of the altars in the lateral chapels: Saint Ladislau 1 of Hungary, Saint Joseph, Saint John of Nepomuc, Holy Cross belong to the same Michael Angelo Unterberger. The stained glass windows made by the Türke Company of Grottau were installed in 1898.

The Big Synagogue was built between 1899 and 1900 at the initiative of the Jewish community “Status Quo” and that was considered to be one of the most beautiful synagogues of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The design of the building was drawn up by Gartner Jacob from Vienna and the construction works were coordinated by the Hungarian Pál Soós. The entire edifice is dominated by the central cupola. Each side of the central spire is decorated with a floral rosette similar to the ones on the facade. This type of window is also used several times on the lateral facades. The vast interior is richly decorated, both with shapes and color. The synagogue has 314 seats on the ground floor and 238 on the top floor. The most recent large scale remodeling of the building took place in 2000 when the walls were reinforced and the interior decoration was re-done.

The existence of the Unitarian faith in the town is linked to the name of Ferenc, founder of Unitarianism and the first Unitarian bishop. The political circumstances in Transylvania became favourable for Ferenc Dávid’s activity as the Diet of Torda held between 1557 and 1568 granted freedom of faith to all religions in Transylvania. The Unitarianism became religio-recepta together with all the other Protestant faiths. The king of the state himself, John 2 Sigismund Zapolya became Unitarian. The Unitarian Church was built between 1929 and 1930 next to the old Unitarian prayer house dating from 1869.

Ascension of the Lord Orthodox Cathedral

Lutheran Church

Reformed Church (Libertatii (Szabadi) street)

Unitarian Church

The first fortress in the town was erected in 1492 upon order of  Transylvanian voivode Stephen Bathory, and was accomplished somewhere between 1602 and 1652 under judge Tamas Borsos. Having a pentagon plan, surrounded by a defense wall, the Citadel has seven forts, five of them bearing the names of the guild which – according to tradition – supported its maintenance: the leather dressers’, the tailors’, the butchers’, the ironmongers’, the coopers’. After the Citadel was taken over by the Austrian troops, it became the headquarters of the military garrison based in the town. In the mean time the Baroque style building was built (on the left hand side of the road in front of the entrance gate) and in the second half of the 18th century the construction works of the “barkey” were started, an addition finished in the 19th century. On the occasion of the Târgu_Mureş days – which have as central point of performance the Citadel – a museum center was opened in the gate fort (erected in 1613) presenting the history of the town and of the Citadel.

Entrance to the City Fortress

The Teleki-Bolyai Library is a historic public library and current museum in the town. One of the richest Transylvanian collections of cultural artefacts, it was founded by the  Hungarian Count Samuel Teleki in 1802, at the time when Transylvania was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and has been open to the reading public ever since. It was among the first institutions of its kind inside the Habsburg-ruled Kingdom of Hungary. It houses over 200,000 volumes, of which many are rarities, constituting a comprehensive scientific database. The book collection is divided into several smaller libraries, of which the two main donations are the original 40,000-volume Teleki Library and the 80,000-volume Bolyai Library; the rest, grouped as the Miscellaneous Collection, is made up of several private libraries, volumes previously held by religious schools and those of a Franciscan monastery. Overall, the library constitutes a collection of most traditional types of Transylvanian book.

 LibraryTeleki-Bolyai Library

Romania picturesq

            Transylvania

    Cluj-Napoca County

               St. Michael Church

   Is the oldest religious building in the city and also a representative monument of the site gotic.The curch hall type, with three naves was built between 1349-c.1580 main entrance portal from the second half of the seventeenth century. It maintains parts of the interior painting (fifteenth century). Sacristy is a valuable portal German Renaissance (1528). The pulpit was made monumental baroque German sculptors J. Nachtigall and A. Schuhbauer (1740-1750) . Bell tower built in neoclassical style between 1836-1862.In front of the church is the equestrian statue of Matthias Corvinus made by sculptor John Fadrusz in 1902.

Shrine of the Three Kings from the East

Inside the church,

Crest above the entrance gate

Church altar

Over time, the building has been witness to several important moments: it was named Matthias Corvinus, Queen Izabella signs taught in the chamber of Emperor Ferdinand I. This royal messengers were invested princes of Transylvania, Gabriel Bethlen, Rákoczi Sigismund, Sigismund Báthory and Gabriel Báthory

                    Art Museum

   Installed in the Banffi Palace is a beautiful baroque building, with a facade decorated with sculptures and statues, built between 1774-1785 after the plans of architect Johann Blaumann, modern and contemporary art gallery containing works of Romanian artists of the eighteenth century Transylvania century paintings by Ioan Andreescu, Gheorghe Petrascu, Nicholas Tonitza Ion Jalea, Romulus Ladea and many oters.Universal Art Gallery shows paintings of the school: German, Flemish, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Hungarian, etc..

Bánffy family crest

Views from inside the palace

Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania

   Is arranged in the building ‘Redoult’, Construction of the Empire style (late eighteenth century), which sheltered the Diet of Transylvania (1848-1865). This has been the “Memorandum” (1894) and in 1923 Congress was held general unions in Romania. He had over 40,000 pieces on the occupations of the population in Transylvania, costumes and ancient customs of the various testimonies.

 

   With a wealth (over 100,000 pieces) divided into several sections: a primitive village, Daco-Romanian era, modern-contemporary, Roman lapidary and feudal lapidary.

 

   The statuary group Transylvanian School

   Work of the sculptor Romulus Ladea, depicts three leading representatives of cultural and ideological movement of Romanian intellectuals in Transylvania page: Samuil Micu, Gheorghe Sincai and Petru Maior. The group was near the University “Babes Boliyai” founded in 1872 and initially organized with four faculties (medicine, law, literature and science)

The statuary group Horea, Closca and Crisan

Powered by sculptor Ion Vasiliu, evoke the three leaders of peasant revolt 1784-1785.

Michael the Brave Statue

The creation of Marius Butunoiu

Tailors’Bastion

   The Cluj-Napoca Tailors’ Tower (Romanian: Bastionul Croitorilor din Cluj-Napoca, Hungarian: Szabók bástyája) is located at the southeast corner of the old Cluj-Napoca citadel. It was built in the 15th century and rebuilt between 1627 and 1629, assuming its present form. It was named after the Tailors’ Guild, who took care of and guarded this part of the city. Near the tower — where Baba Novac, general of Michael the Brave and Saski priest, was killed in 1601 by General Basta — there is a statue of Baba Novac.

Home of MATEI CORVIN

   The oldest building preserved in city.Bilding secular Gothic, Renaissance traits she received on the occasion of subsequent renovations. Matthias was born here, who would become King of Hungary. Now it houses the Institute of Fine Arts “Ion Andreescu.

Matthias House is one of the oldest buildings and the only Renaissance palace in Cluj-Napoca.
The building was built in the fifteenth century and is located inside the first enclosure belonging to the old fortress defense.
In this house was born on 23 February 1440, Matthias Corvinus, son of Prince Iancu de Hunedoara. Subsequently, Matthias became king of Hungary in the period 1458-1490, is considered one of the largest Hungarian monarchs. King decided the building exemption from taxes, exemption who have met her and rulers who followed him.
Built in Gothic style, Matei Corvin hause underwent various changes over time and adapt to new styles. Thus, in the first half of the sixteenth century were introduced a number of architectural elements Renaissance . In the late nineteenth century, being in an advanced state of decay, was restored by inserting a series of specific elements of the 1900 style. It was restored again in 1940 by architect new Karoly Kos, and then during the communist period, were removed many of the 1900 amendments.

   Collection of history of pharmacy

   Arranged in the house Hintz-house where he worked building the city’s first pharmacy (1573), shows furniture, pots, chemicals and pharmaceutical instruments.

   The Pharmacy History Collection can be found in the oldest pharmacy building of Cluj-Napoca, named “La Sfântul Gheorghe”, also known as the Hintz pharmacy, dating back to 1573.
The museum opened in 1954; later, in 1963, the Pharmacy Museum changed its name in The Pharmacy History Collection, under the National History Museum of Transylvania.
The museum started with a collection of Transylvanian pharmaceutical objects, owned by Professor Iuliu Orient (1869-1940). The collection was first exhibited in 1904 in one of the exhibition rooms at the Transylvanian Museum (Muzeul Ardelean/Erdélyi Múzeum). This collection containing 1,800 pieces was donated to the museum and it was enriched over time through other several valuable donations that describe the pharmaceutical activity in Transylvania from the 16th century to the 20th.
The room in which drugs were sold is decorated with a baroque mural painting dating back to 1766. This decoration is one of a kind in Romania.
The original furniture is from the 17th century up to the 19th century. Old pharmaceutical recipients, pharmaceutical products, old books and important documents can be found here. The substance room contains over 200 wooden pharmaceutical recipients from the 17th-19th centuries. The pharmacists used this type of recipients to preserve powder from medicinal herbs and some mineral powder. There is also a wooden mobile pharmacy with many labeled medicine bottles contained in its drawers.
The pharmacy’s basement looks like a medieval chemistry laboratory where only the pharmacist and his assistants had access. Tools that were used in the past for the preparations of healing potions are displayed here, amongst with glass retorts, copper distillers, drip device (an installation for extracting tinctures), recipients and bowls made out of bronze and copper, pharmaceutical containers and tin measurement tools, wooden mixers, antique glass, ceramic and wooden recipients, bronze and cast iron jars.

    Well understood, I did not want to upload too many pages but I assure you there are many beautiful things to see but will let you discover them dear friends visiting this realm of legend and fairy tale.

Romania picturesqe

                                                           Transylvania

 

                             Zarand Country

                                          Hunyadi Castle

 

 Incorporating a stone fortification of the fourteenth century, the castle is the result of two stages of construction, the time of John Hunyadi (first half of XV century), which transforms into a military building features of the Gothic style residence, late phase, with the most advanced model patterns of military and civil architecture of the moment. Many Renaissance were added during the reign of Matthias Corvinus and Gabriel Bethlen, the second phase of construction of the fifteenth century and the seventeenth century, the last structural elements belonging to the eighteenth century. The general appearance is due to the current restoration of the nineteenth century to the twentieth century.

   NEW TOWER OF GATE belongs, like the first time the construction of the first phase undertaken by John Hunyadi (1440 – 1444), at which time he was a rectangular tower defense, with three levels (one downstairs and two floors), placed in the north-western city of Hunedoara. In the seventeenth century through the ground floor of the tower is arranged a new entry to the castle, the input is used today. Also the initial functionality of the tower is abandoned, its defense floors being converted into habitable rooms. In the late nineteenth century, this tower is I added a new floor, comes with a wooden gallery, and the current roof

  OLD TOWER OF GATE is located in the south – east of the enclosure built in the first phase of construction dated at the time of John Hunyadi. Rectagulara form, with two levels of protection to overlap access corridor, but have provided the battlements and the floor was covered with an exterior painting geometric motifs

TOWER CAPISTANO is located in the south – west of the palace belonging to the first phase of construction of John Hunyadi. Originally the section was a circular tower with two levels of protection, the upper floor being embattled. During the second phase of John Hunyadi, the upper level is transformed into a living room (cell) for the Franciscan friar John of Capistrano (1386-1456). In this room can be found gothic fireplace that heated the room monk, currently the only piece of its kind in the regions that were part of the medieval kingdom of Hungary.

Artillery Terrace (Bastion ammunition) is built in the first half of the seventeenth century, in the same momentu White Tower, while Gabriel Bethlen. It shows as a platform for artillery, with embattled top, designed to support heavy weapons fire, forming together with the White Tower of the castle defensive system on the eastern side, adapted defensive system of the eighteenth century, when artillery had reached a development in relation to the fifteenth century.

 Drummer TOWER is located on the eastern side of the castle is also a circular tower with two levels of defense (second floor room and the embattled Marines) as the Capistrano Tower or Tower wilderness. It also is built throughout the first phase of John Hunyadi (1440-1444). Current appearance of the tower, with what looks like an upper floor living room, which is a beautiful neo-Gothic vault is due to the stages of restoration in the late nineteenth century, at which point the direct passage of the living room and arranged Bethlen on this floor.

 BUZDUGAN TOWER (TOWER painter) is the tallest tower in the first phase of construction of John Hunyadi (1440-1444), features a single level of defense, supported by consoles. At the time of its construction, was used as an observation tower, a dome-shaped roof or hemispherical, which justify the first name, and in the second half of the fifteenth century the tower outside the body is covered with a painting in three colors ordered in geometric (diamond) which can be seen today. In the late nineteenth century restoration alter the appearance of a high roof, like a helmet and placed on top of the roof of a bronze statue of a medieval knight wearing the battle flag is inscribed the year when the statue was placed in that place (1873].

   Administrative Palace is left on the southern side of the castle and also called Zólyomi Wing, named after the noble family that owned the castle in the second half of the seventeenth century. It comprises three levels, ground floor building is attributed to the XVI century. the other two floors were built in the castle was owned by the prince Gabriel Bethlen. The general appearance of this part of the city of Hunedoara is changed in the eighteenth century, when the castle passed from private ownership of state owned (since 1724), the period covered in this wing are furnished offices of the Iron Mining Administration Glade Mountain Rust. Fire in 1854 severely affect the southern part of the castle, the current picture of the wings is the result of the restoration works undertaken in the late nineteenth century.

   Knights Hall is built in the second stage of the works of John Hunyadi (1446 – 1456) and is part of the palace itself, along with Hall and spiral staircase. The hall is located in the western side of the castle, the floor is the Great Palace built in late Gothic style. The hall is divided into two sectors by a row of octagonal columns. The capital of the second is an inscription in Latin, written with Gothic characters: “This paper has made ​​a proud and mighty John Hunyadi, governor of the Hungarian kingdom in the year of our Lord 1452.” functionality of this room was to dining room at festive occasions and meetings courtroom for nobles, after the German model.

 CHAPEL CITY HUNEDOARA is framed, in terms of building momentum in the second phase of John Hunyadi (1446-1456). Ecclesiastical building character, is developed in the late Gothic style, like all civil constructions built in that time. The chapel is made ​​of a single ship preceded by a small narthex, the dividing line between these two constituents are on the pillars that support a gallery with gallery. Patron of the monastery was at the Catholic St John Botezatoru. The current layout is different from the fifteenth century by the fact that the vault was lowered by 1.56 meters in the first half of the seventeenth century, during the refurbishment works at the castle of Hunedoara initiated by Prince Gabriel Bethen, when the chapel is dedicated reformed rite.

Hall is a space dedicated to secular ceremonies, conducted in mid-fifteenth century, in the second phase of construction from the time of John Hunyadi. Together with the Knights hall, spiral staircase and chapel, Hall changed the destination city in Hunedoara fortified noble residence, the only of its kind in Transylvania that time. Hall, built in Gothic style, is the central axis of a row of octagonal columns and a gallery on the western side bellows provided on the outside with a decorative late Gothic and Renaissance elements early. This space suffers changes in the seventeenth century, when subdivided by a wooden ceiling and interior walls, resulting in six residential apartments. It comes complete with a fresco which includes portraits of friends, family medallions Gabriel Bethlen. The fire destroyed the premises in 1854 and restored between 1956 to 1968 and have played the original image.

  BEARS pit is actually a space between two curtains (Matthias Wing of the eastern wall and a portion of the defense wall designed by John Hunyadi in its first phase of construction). This area is famous here because of the legend according to which prisoners were thrown wild beasts, the legend that is certainly the source of the name of this part of the castle.
   LEGEND Fountain – The fountain tells it like it was dug by three Turkish prisoners, John Hunyadi who promised that he will release the complete work. Animate release prisoners of hope in a rock drill for 15 years up to 28 feet deep and manage to find the precious water. Meanwhile, John Hunyadi died and his wife, Elizabeth Szilaghi, decided not to respect promises her husband and ordered the killing of three prisoners. As a last wish those three Turks have asked permission to write an inscription on the fountain keys to her: “Water of the heart in you”as a reproach to the promise made ​​and missed. The translation made by Michael Globloglu tells us that “one who is digging Hasan, giaours prisoner at the fortress near the church.” Ancient Arabic characters contained in an inscription dating to the mid-fifteenth century. Current position of this inscription is one of the abutments of the chapel.