Known history of Székely down to the dark IX century, when we have strayed Asian hordes on Romanian land, messing boundaries them from the Tisza and Danube Western Middle, after many fierce battles waged and “Latinos” on the one hand, with blachii, Bulgarians and Slavs Salanus Duke, on the other.
Deployed in Central Asia and settled permanently in search of “new country” (Simon Keza), one by one, the Volga-Don regions, Don-Dnieper (Lebed), Dnieper (“Danapris”), River (“Danastris “) (” Atelkuz “) Hungarians palm (name in their language meaning” earth children “) have undergone numerous military more Roman (” Roman “blakumen, ulaq) on the coast north-Pontic mentioned the stars to Sjonkeim, Egil’s Saga and Asmundar, song Nibelungs, Chronicle of Nestor, Marcianus, Stephen of Byzantium, Euagrios Scholasticus, Theophanes Confessor, Ioannes Mauropus, Godefridus of Viterbium, Oguzname, Hudud of Alam, Gardizi, Vardan etc.. that, subject to the kazari turn, to rebel against them and to accept the Bulgarians (894) to attack the Byzantines. Leaving to buy the Byzantines, Bulgarians have betrayed (895), as that caught “pincer” of their armies, who had driven across the Dniester, the Pechenegs and the Bulgarians called in support and have forced Dnieper, amounted to the north, to Kiev, in permanent contact and conflict with people “out of the Roman Empire” that “all are Christians and … more than the Hungarians but … much less” (Gardizi) – Romans. Urged the varego-slave, joining them the Pechenegs, Slavs (as in “three thousand”), even Wallachian rulers (eg “Bear”) will start looking west Pannonia, was soundly beaten by “volohii and slovianii who lived there “(Nestor), when passing through the Carpathians forests where that evidence over time, were discovered in 1998, two Romanian villages in the mountains and forgotten in the Middle Ages – Mirka and Poroskovo. With Almus (supreme chief) hurt open areas of Carpathian Ukraine and his current fixed “floor” instead appointed a Romanian word – work that had arrived here with a lot of hard work = work – Mukacheve (Chronicle of Nestor, Painted Chronicle of Vienna). Raise other six “cities” around Mukacheve’s (Simon Keza), where confusion (intentional) Hungarian historians with “Siebenbürgen” (seven cities), called on Germans, half a millennium later, Transylvania. 896 attacked the country’s late Roman glory of ungulates, the remnant of Great Moravia, dismantled a year earlier, kill him “go” from there (the term indicates mainly Romanian Romanian Country of ungulates or Unguarului) and Arpad, successor of Almus, marries his daughter to be prevalent. Thus arises the Carpathian Ukraine, “Hungary”, the “unguari” to mean those who master coming from the natives of Ung gave the Tisza and Danube Middle “somewhat mocking” of Arpad and his soldiers. Only in 903, the Hungarians and their allies down in the land of “Salanus”, fixing and a strong base of attack between the Tisza and Danube Bodrog. So began the Hungarian conquest of Pannonia and Hungarian mogerm people ethnogenesis modern .
Szeklers and Hungarian ethnogenesis
Component on the new wave of migration in Pannonia, sources state that the Hungarians, the leading component, were warriors try but less numerous, amounting to “108 nations no more. And others who joined them are or foreign or from slaves” (Simon Keza), so interested tribes, due to their weakness, association, or under the arms and taken in tow wave Hungarian: kazari, kabari, pecenego-Cumans, Bulgars, Slavs and even “Voloh”. In Tisza-Danube region Middle burst over Slavs, Bulgarians and “needle pastores Blachi Romanorum” or “Blasi” living “the master” in the duchy of Salanus, and on the right Danube, over Slavs (Moravia), German (France) Blachi and Romanian ministers timoceni (Vidin run from Diiu or Bulgarians fear and colonized here francs in 816) and “Latin” or “Romans”, ie the local population, belonging to central European Romanity, which connects Eastern Roman (Romans ) and Western, in turn, surviving today only “romansii” (Switzerland). Later, after Christianization, the kings of Buda and Cumans Pecheneg colonize new waves, or “Kune” open their doors to all Western dezmostenitilor strengthen economic and military potential. All they had to contribute, in the crucible Pannonia, the formation (ethnogenesis) Hungarian modern people. But not Szeklers, who remained a distinct population and that, even completely “Hungarianised” today, still preserved their unique name and origin of consciousness.
Hungarian historical (Anonymus, Simon Keza, Chronicon Pictum etc.) have accredited the idea that “Zaculos” – Szeklers as “remnants of the Huns” who would have continued to live together after the disintegration of Attila’s empire in NE Hungary and NW Romania actual current “the plain of Cigli”. Too small to organize expeditions themselves prey to “duchies” Romanian or Slavic neighbors would be out to meet Hungarian wave, passing through northern Transylvania to Galicia. A choice dictated by the interest, considered a sufficient reason by some researchers as interested in history, to accredit the idea of ??an approach dictated by the “voice of blood” between Székely and those who had to go down in history under the name Slav “Hungarians”. Although early gestele and Hungarian historians – they took some views of practical interest, political – both peoples attribute the same origin “hunnish” Szeklers is thus a precursor wave as Hungarian, a closer look at the sources, Clio restores truth: today Hungarians are Hungarians, just as the French can be considered Gauls or Romans – Dacians and the Hungarians were a great Asian population evident by the Huns. But what about Szeklers? Or not “remnants of the Huns” before magyarization because of religious or political action of the royalty from Buda, to the sixteenth century, and later, after “Mohacs Vesz” (“Passing of Mohacs – 1526), the reinforced by the Hungarians (the refugees) in Transylvania?
In line with Hungarian sources, some authors, generally humanists, they considered “the nation hunnish” (eg A. Verancsics). But others appreciated because the sonority of name, they are “older than the Huns, and so are called scituli, that small Scythians” (Antonio Possevino) and thus “a nation of Scythians” (G. Reicherstorfer, Stephan Taurinus, etc. .) hence the name, often used as derived from “zekel” – “chic”, “ciculi”, “scituli”. For all but, with the exception of Petrus Ranzanus (1420-1492) – Dominican monk Sicilian origin who sees in them the ancient population of Sicily chic – Szeklers came from North Pontic steppes, “Scythian”, the path used by all arisen from distant populations of Asia, including the Huns. According name, “szekelyek” derived from “szkil-sikil” to mean the “Eski Tukce” (“old Turkish”), the people “noble”, as once we thought it would be a minor group Hungarians previous migration, can a tribe of Avars or rather a heterogeneous group of Turkish-Asian elements, left or V-VIII centuries infiltrated the border area of Transylvania, not very important to be remembered among the inhabitants of early chroniclers and the arrival of Hungarian rulers Pannonia “Slavs, Greeks, Teutonicii, Mesianii and Vlachs”. Today however, we are able to say, after centuries of German sources IX-XIII (Annales Francorum kingdom, Poeta Saxo, Annals Fuldense etc.) As Szeklers are certainly descendants Avars, a native of Mongolia and Turkic people related linguistically to the Huns, Pechenegs, uzii, Cumans, Tatar-Mongols, Turks etc., totally different from Hungarians palm.
descendants of Avars
Avars have appeared in the Romanian etnogenetic space in great migrations of the middle eastern world VI. Initially attracted to the maritime Danube, working, with the predominant role, with the Slavs (sclavinii) hunnish kutrigurii Stalinist historiography and those that forced us to glory and I think that, older or newer studies (Gorman Igor, Nico Zupanici, ON Trubacov, FP Faline, Bratianu etc.), they identified as the Sarmatians, Alans good family – anti (their descendants, osetinii, live today in the Caucasus). While the Slavs, anti, kutrigurii focused on the imperial road to Byzantium, trying to force the Danube, the Avars were drawn on the way north, longobards Germany, settled in Pannonia Gepids crushing power. Longobard offer came at the right time to the Roman Empire as Avars requests for Sunrise to settle south of the Danube (558, 561) were rejected. Led by Baian (558-605), he crushed the Gepidae, but not for the benefit of rebellious nations. It installed themselves here, founding a Kagan between Alps, Carpathians and northern Adriatic, in the year 567. Conquer Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia (570-580), Dalmatia and Illyria in 583, Byzantium imposing pay tribute, then, with the Slavs, devastate the Danube on both sides (587) to Silistra and the whole Balkan Peninsula (592-598). There are times that recorded in the first monument of Romanian history, urging “Torna, torna fratre” (see T. and T. Simocatta Confessor). Only in 601 imperial armies fail to stop, and the West Frankish kingdom are stopped for reunited Clotar II (584-629). Baian weakening after his death, the first Kagan will collapse under the blows of the Slavs of Pannonia that rebellion in 623 led by Samo. Slavs came under control, damage will suffer heavy losses in the siege of Constantinople by them (626). Samo defeated the Franks instead of Dagobert I (629-639), the Wogattisburg (631)-and mastering reinforcing in Pannonia, but at his death the state apart. It is a chance for Avars to the receive new reinforcements from Asia, so that the background the Lower Danube Bulgarian invasion,the damage Kagan is re founded in Pannonia (675-680), reaching frank rival kingdom, and the Carolingian Empire in Central Europe .
Meanwhile, the Avars were in contact with protoromanii of territories subject but also the east of the Tisza, because, in search of salt, they expanded their control. Archaeological, their presence could be identified isolated Felnac, Sanpetru, Socodor (Arad County), Dumbraveni or Teius (White County). Language, proof of cohabitation, bequeathed us the word zoapan (governor charged with collecting taxes from local communities) who gave the Romanian boss, boss (Mircea Rusu), which was later adopted and the Slavs – pan, and the Hungarians – Ispan and probably Kenda words (Rom. time) and Khan khagan (Kean, Kan), and later taken over by the Hungarians.
Feeling strong, attacked the French state failure, which led war unleashed against them, until the complete defeat of Avar kagan by Charlemagne (768-814). According to the Annals of French kings, contemporary source, and a German source later (Poeta Saxo), they build upon that base against them, since the 782, mark the border Ostmark (Austria). Avars attempts to abolish “mark of the East” (Austria) failing in 788, Charlemagne prepares counter and the war in 791-796 years, destroy Avar state, extending to border franca of the Middle Danube, in Pannonia. Crossing the river, raiding his armies to chase them Tisa, so that Avars “transTiszam fluvium fugatis”. November expeditions were organized in the years 800 and 805, when German sources recorded in the year 1277 as “Hungarians” were driven over the Tisza “in Walahen unz”. How are called the “Hungarian” for the year 805, by a late spring? Because, in the meantime, the Mukacheve and conquering Hungarians Country ungulates (hence the name “unguari”), remains Avars were placed under their protection. Therefore Annals 895/896 year Fuldense talk about “Avars that call themselves Hungarians.”
In 896 therefore, have left the place and left the country of ungulates to worship Arpad, the Duke not only palm Hungarians, but also over the multitude of tribes Turan, related Avars. It is when, confirming archaeological research since 1956-1958, as further proof of the origin of damage to the Székely, the decline phase of damage to cultural objects ornamented with griffins cast and shall cease to exist in NW Romania (Kurt Horedt).
Allies, but not included in the conglomerate of populations which will lead to the genesis of Hungary, Hungarian Szeklers were used, then the Hungarians, as in any alliance between one another harder and worse: at the forefront, during offensives, and the rear guard, to retreat! They will enjoy privileges in return but their military job and will be used as a forward against too numerous native Hungary that royalty can never swallow them whole – Romanians.
Archaeology, toponymy, puts them in written sources dating X century in Bihar, in Aries, in the center of the Moldovan Romanian voivode in (XI-XII), between Turda and Aiud in Barsa and finally, in the Carpathians where they will be definitely among the Romans colonized and organized the “seats” (szekek-Sedesa) Ciuc (Miercurea Ciuc areas – Csikzeredda, Giurgeu – Gheorgheni – Gyergyó and Casin – Kaszon) Three seats (Háromszék: SEPS, Kezdi, Orba) Odorheiu (Székelyudvarhely ) and Mures (Mároszek).
Today, considerably strengthened the denationalisation of the Romans themselves Hungarianised, Szeklers live in areas of concentration in central and eastern county of Mures (Mures valley side, the Niraj Valley, Upper Small Tarnava in Harghita – (Odorhei Ciuc Gheorghieni) and Covasna – (Saint George, Covasna, Targu Secuiesc).
Throughout the Middle Ages but also a good time under German Roman occupation (1699-1806) and Austrian (1806-1867), due to ethnic Romanian belt that has protected mountain environment as adoption, “were kept May untouched than any other nation – reveals the wonder Possevino humanist Antonio (1533-1611) – in that country fortified by nature, thanks to its position in many places inaccessible.’m still mingle among them. “
Szeklers – “special generation” of Hungarians
All scholars, travelers, who crossed the Romanian space condottiers found Szeklers uniqueness, as the Saxons (another element of colonization), implants Romanian Catholic environment.
Catholicize by Hungarians, accepted as allies, as a “nation” medieval Avars descendants continued to be ethnically different. Because outside of runes (to the Romans, their teachers, had given up when adopting Slavonic, the liturgical language and the Cyrillic alphabet), Szeklers continued to have a language of their own port and customs, still visible in the century XVI, endangered in XVII-XIX centuries and only remember their old one today, in the Ciuc in so effective was the ungurizare, supported primarily by the church, both the Catholic and subsequently, the Reformed. The fact that they still call themselves today, but persistent consciousness Szeklers attest to fundamental differences from the Hungarian population, a distinct ethnic group originating.
In the sixteenth century, although at first sight “language, like all habits,” he approached the Hungarians (Georg Reicherstorffer), Francesco della Valle Padovan known doctor (? -1545) Could not noticing that “a nation are still barbaric “else” than the Hungarians. “Deeply familiar with the realities of Transylvania, the great humanist scholar Verantius Antonius (Anton Verancsics) (1504-1578) concluded, after an objective analysis as Szeklers “Hungarians differ in almost all the customs, laws and their way of life, outside of religion, and not like at all, neither the language they speak in the ancestors language. “