Bârsa, called Carpathian Curvature or Brasov Depression is a historical and ethnographic region in south-eastern Transylvania, Brasov largest city. The name comes from the Bârsa river, which flows into the Olt River.
Geographically, Bârsa is a depression disposed inside the Carpathian arch, bordered by the towns Apata north, south Bran, Vladeni Prejmer west and east. It is crossed by numerous rivers and fast mountain rivers, as delimited on a good portion of the Olt River.
Inhabited since ancient times, the region was donated in 1211 to the Teutonic Knights by King Andrew II of Hungary as a reward for keeping the southeastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary, against Cumans. Teuton’s raised many castles in the area and brought settlers from the Holy Roman Empire to populate the territory. In 1224 the Knights have tried to leave the alliance with the Hungarians and the subordination of the Holy See, and Andrew King evacuated following the order in 1225. Although the teuton’s left the area and were headed to Prussia, German settlers remained here until the twentieth century, founding one of the strongest districts – both in terms of military and economic. Along with Great Union of 1918, Barsa entered in the Romania component.
Bârsa is characterized by charming scenery, but also through the walls of fortresses that stand witness to a troubled historical past, which for centuries have lived in the neighborhood together German, Romanian and Hungarian. From Birs, whose capital is the name of the Brasov (both names probably having the same origin) derived Birsan (Barsan) which means long and rough wool (turcana].
Turko-Tatar invasions more frequent in Brasov centuries XIII – XV were the majority population was not related to the fertile land of Bartholomew to move the location of Tampa, scaffolding and Warthe hill. Before this there was a dense forest, from the rivulet that ran through the middle of Solomon’s Stones (Graft). Where it is separated into two, one arm and taking her to the other to Braşovechi Blumăna there an observation tower around which, since 1420, Hall was built, the house. The place was not empty, the monks and nuns came with teutonii built their monasteries here are two: the St. Lawrence and St. Catherine. They were unfortunately destroyed by the Tatars in 1241.
After 1383, the new location was fortified settlements only trenching, earth walls and palisades. At the end of the fourteenth century was rebuilt in stone enclosure. Gradually, however, the construction of walls and bastions, which have brought fame to Brasov far as the “city of the seven bastions. In total, the walls were 3000 m long, is 12 feet high and thick 1.70 to 2.20 m. In addition to the bulwarks placed every 110 m, they were also defended by 28 towers and powder form square. Today is preserved only in june, two on the south side and 4 on the northwestern side of the city. The walls were double and sometimes – on the north-east side in particular – triple, among them there trenching and earth walls. Between the walls were so-called “pens” (Zwinger), each have mastered the guild. From the fifteenth century, under the supervision of King Sigismund of Luxembourg, the first such building fortifications of the city of Brasov.
There have been high since the fifteenth century by various guilds, which used them to store goods in peacetime and in times of siege or attack became fortresses. Of the eight original towers, there are still only three full:
Located in the southwest corner of the city of Brasov, Bastion, with an area of 1616 sqm. Its walls have a thickness of 4 m and 1 m based on the fourth level of the building. Built by the weavers’ guild, on four levels, with goals by shooting jets of oil and two guard towers, has a unique architectural bastion in the south-eastern Europe. Being spared the great fire of 1689, is preserved in its original form.
The first construction works took place between 1421 and 1436, the first two levels are high. In 1522 was attested. Between 1570 and 1573 was high at the third floor, and between 1750 and 1910 major restoration was performed after partially collapsed bastion in 1701. In 1908, after which time only served as a warehouse, has become the bastion of the adjacent building (headquarters of the guild), and increasingly more, is used mostly for parties and concerts of opera, thanks to stunning sound quality that gives evidence. In 1950, the Museum was arranged inside the bastion Barsa, the model is exposed to the old city of Brasov, Schei as it was in the late seventeenth century and weavers guild weapons and products.
Located in the northwest corner of the city of Brasov, Blacksmiths’Bastion already existed at 1521. The first documentary is dated but eight years later, in 1529. Since pentagonal shape, the bastion is built on three levels, with gaps for firing fuel oil and the goals could install cannons and small arms (bombing). At first, perhaps the place was a Blacksmith Bastion Tower, shown already in 1521, destroyed by the flood of 1526, then rebuilt in 1527, when the ruins of the tower said first blacksmiths. Bastion will be extended on two occasions after the 1526 and 1668. A “tower of the smiths” is mentioned in the list of weapons in 1562, as being in the neighborhood “Catherine”, between the towers and potters Loaf – unidentified today. On 30 July 1667 another flood caused by heavy rain, destroyed the fortifications of this place, and in 1668 received the Blacksmiths’Bastion its final form. The great fire of 21 April 1689 and transformed the fortress into a wreck, barely being restored after 20 years. Inside, the bastion had wooden galleries supported on consoles. After 1734, will be used only in non-military purposes, such as grain storage and housing. In 1820, the tower instead of blacksmiths, there was a smaller bear – finished by master builder Joseph Jani – Brasov with arms on the frontispiece. Greatly hindered the movement, and this gate was demolished in 1874. Bastion has suffered major repairs to 1709, adding the brick arches. In 1923 the archives were brought bastion in Brasov Council House, and remain here permanently. In 1938, after a while he served mountain of piety, the building was renovated, reaching the form we know today.
Graft Bastion Bastion in Brasov or Gateway (German Torbastei), as was also called because of its shape, was built between 1515-1521, defended and maintained the guild costs saddlery, being designed to make the connection between the soldiers of the city and the White Tower . Its location, near the middle of the north-west of the city, made the bastion of defense to increase opportunities for the area. In the sixteenth-century north-western wall of the fortress is still backed by an outer wall. All were captured when the waters came from a channel Schei (on German Graft), which flowed at the foot of the newly built wall. Graft Bastion was designed so that a bridge over the channel. It was based on a thickness of about 4 feet and was structured on two floors and an attic, equipped with firing holes and oil holes preserved until today. Access to the White Tower was covered by a bridge that goes up the slope to the entrance to the White Tower where defenders descended a ladder to allow entry into the tower.
Due to a large flood, following torrential rains on 24 August 1809, outside the enclosure wall was much weakened by washing foundations (because the city walls, the entire amount of rainfall needed to drain Schei along channel Graft). Therefore, the architects of the city have found a solution by supporting the construction of three arches over the creek in 1822. In the twentieth century, the wall was pierced to provide a second exit Corso cinema (now Royal) and when building a house for Friedrich Czell manufacturer, two of the arches are gone, with the portion of the wall which rested . The inscription on the north wall of Graft Bastion, initially in eight rows and – today – largely illegible, could not be restored because it did not identify any copy of it. Renovated in 2004 – 2005, was arranged inside a polling bastion of Braşov County History Museum on “The craftsmen from Brasov – defenders of the city” and a craft shop, then disbanded. The exhibition, located on the second floor of the bastion, includes weapons, armor and munitions used to defend the city, boards with facsimiles of documents and photographs / lithographs Brasov’s medieval fortifications. Also, the route was restored and the White Tower, a series of steps that ascends abruptly Warthe hill slope.
others are newly renovated:
Funar Bastion (or Rope) is the first bastion in Brasov mentioned in documents, 1416. The hexagon, the bastion was originally 10 to 12 m in height and was equipped with shooting holes for moving parts. Flat brick arches, whose traces are still visible today, were built later. Bastion had suffered from a fire at 1461 and 1689, the latter causing serious damage to the original architecture. Redone, Funar bastion served as repository for materials. The house, which is seen today was built in 1794, the guild that was in possession of fortification. In 1894, the bastion was sold for 2,000 florins significant amount at that time. It was renovated in 2006.
Mentioned later than the rest of the fortifications of the city of Brasov, it seems that Bastion Tower, Tanners, or as he says, was built around 1452 and entrusted to defend the guild “red tanners. Tower had a semicircular shape, with an open hand toward the Drapers’ Bastion. At first it was just drag and mouth holes for molten pitch. The brick arches are still visible today, but later were made??. Drapers’Bastion fortification communicate with a gallery along the exterior wall. It was renovated in 2005.
Drapers ‘Bastion, located in the northeast corner of the city of Brasov, was defended and goldsmiths’ guild built between 1450 and 1455. They have endowed him with the bomb in Prague with three small cannons and 16 harquebus. In 1521 and 1522 are made to work bastion. In 1640, point defense was picked up by draper.
Built on four levels of galleries of wood, of elliptical shape with a diameter of 16 m, 20 m in height bastion measure. Its walls were 2 m thick based on the first floor had holes and installing small-caliber cannons. Drapers’ Bastion has remained relatively well until today, being strengthened in the years 1961 – 1962 and renovated in 2005.
Or total dissolved:
Goldsmiths Bastion (1886)
In 1612, the City Judge, Michael Weiss, decided to raise another outer wall of the city. The plan remained unachieved due to death at the Battle of Feldioara county lord (16 October 1612) against the tyrant Prince Gabriel Bath. In 1632, goldsmiths few craftsmen have reproduced the idea of ??building a new stronghold from Judge Michael Weiss, on the site of the Customs Gate and Main Gate. Goldsmiths ‘Guild had to Drapers’ Bastion defense today, but in 1639, they took another point and they fortified walls. Built in two years, Bastion was approximately middle of the north and northeast of the city. The foundations were dug by residents of Mosquitoes (Dumbrăviţa today), and Tohan Zărneşti. The sand was brought by villagers near the stones and lime were conveyed by those săcelene Braşovechi and villages. Residents of “Fortress” and neighborhoods Blumăna scaffolding and worked directly with their hands to lift the wall and bastion. On 20 October 1646, counsel handed the new bastion of Brasov and neighboring area of defense “for the maintenance and defense ever” goldsmiths’ guild. Hexagon-shaped, and Funar Bastion, Bastion measure 22 m in height. He was shooting holes for small arms and guns, its position, a good view up and away toward Blumăna Brasovechi. It was apparently the only bastion of Brasov arms on the frontispiece, which was indicated as the period of construction: 1639 – 1641 and the name Christian Hirscher juzilor primary and Michael Goldschmidt. In 1728, a fire broke out at the main gate was extended to the bastion, which has affected. In the nineteenth century, to operate a restaurant inside. In 1871, goldsmiths’ guild, greatly depleted, the city sold the bastion of defense and space attached. Bastion was demolished in 1886, was built behind the school’s actual state (1888-1889), later high school “Dr. John Meşotă “, and today the body of T University” Transilvania “of Brasov.
Harness bastion (1887)
Located in the northwestern city of Brasov, Bastion was a horseshoe-shaped harness, over 40 m long and 14 to 17 m wide. 102 m far outer perimeter, and wall height of 15 m. The walls were measured at over 4 m in thickness, then reduce to two meters. The city weapons inventory since 1562, the bastion belts at that time there were 31 heavy guns (bomb), 5 hand guns, a small cannon and a half quintals of gunpowder. The first documentary mention of the fortress dates from 1525. Like the Smiths and the Weavers’Bastion, Bastion belts have three levels and an observation tower. The fire of 1689 left untouched fortification. Largely ruined, was demolished in 1887, the building’s place Baiulescu House.
Classically, Brasov city had four gates:
Catherine Gate from the Schei
Catherine’s Gate (German Katharinentor) was built to facilitate access şcheienilor in Brasov, the middle side of the Weavers’ Bastion and the Smiths, the site of an old gate dating from the fourteenth or fifteenth century, destroyed by flood 24 August 1526, and from the Turkish invasions. It stretched from the current S Corp “Transilvania” University, where he died gate, far beyond the Schei Gate current. Being situated at the end of Catherine Street – which in turn took its name from the monastery who had been there – the gate was named Catherine. In 1559 the tower was built gate, which is visible today. The square, three-storey building is in the top four towers symbolizing “Jus Gladiator “, a privilege Brasov medieval rulers gave the right to apply the ultimate punishment. Canopy tower is painted in Renaissance style and its architecture is unique in the world, making him a valuable artistic gem. The documents indicate that for each of the eight holes to pull the tower had been bombed in Prague. Gate Tower – now mostly in the ground – has suffered significant damage due to earthquakes and fires of 1689 and 1738.
Customs Gate (the Monastery)
Customs and the Convent Gate, the gateway first of the three gates of the city of Brasov, located on the street today Muresenilor (then Customs Street), was composed of a veritable bastion of a circular shape and a tower that is developed a complex of nearly 100 m. long Formed in the sixteenth century, the gate was strengthened with heavy oak pillars, which băgau with their heads in two holes in the wall. Gate Tower – the oldest part of the fortification, dating from the fourteenth century – was embattled, side town with a sundial. On the frontispiece, Customs Gate present a large picture with colors – the image of Emperor Sigismund, who on 10 March 1395 gave orders to fortify the city.
The defense was represented by beaks and mouths for fuel oil and a drawbridge with chains that tragic night. Bastion gate, horseshoe shaped, stretched to the Military Club today, but the fortification walls and tower were ranked Heroes Boulevard. The bastion wall near the tower, there is a pedestrian gate. To lay a corridor within the city vaulted 30 m. long moat in front of the bastion was passed by a wooden drawbridge. Throughout the interior corridor, the road could be blocked by several gates and bars that made be impregnable bastion. Over the outer gate to the city, the road could be blocked by several gates and bars, the complex is virtually impregnable. In 1562 holds 33 rifles, 10 shotguns Prague and seven smaller guns. In time of peace, security was provided by a “master gate, armed with eight ministers On entering the city that bears on 1 March 1600, Michael the Brave. All this bears on the prince left the city on 1 July 1600, after the victorious conclusion of the campaign in Moldova. Beauty gate was strongly affected by the earthquake of 1738, it practically collapsing. It was finally demolished until 1836.
Main Gate (a coppersmith)
The main gate of the city of Brasov is located at the end coppersmith Lane, later the Porte, and today Republic Street. 1519 Fire destroys part of the building, rebuilt between 1522 and 1524 in the form of a semicircular bastion, 100 m long, with holes and holes for drawing molten pitch. In 1537, portions and add a tower, replaced in 1650-1651. The latter have a big clock and was adorned with beautiful frescos. The pedestrians who were passing below the tower turning at right angles through a dark corridor. Following a 100 m long corridor that could be barricaded in several places. In the evening, both sides of the tower is closed the heavy oak doors, move the iron rails. As Customs Gate, the streets coppersmith had a drawbridge over the water. In the months from May to August 1613, the gate was tightened in view of carrying out a siege by troops Gabriel Bath. He was badly affected by fires and earthquakes in 1650 – 1651, 1689 and 1718 (being restored between 1724-1725), but the earthquake of 1802 was decisive for his fate. Being in danger of collapse, the gate was demolished in 1857. Main Gate of Brasov, in his demolition (1857]
Black Street Gate
A passage less known and used in the city of Brasov, Street Wear Black was today Balcescu. Pomenită since 1464, as “Swarczgas”, then 1578, then the gate was built. Played in use after several decades, in 1785, it was rebuilt between 1788-1789. In 1873, both the outer bastion tower and gate were demolished to allow better access in the barracks “Black”, recently built on this street.
Black Tower is one of four observation towers of the City of Brasov built as a fortification independent located outside the walls, over 11 meters high. Located within walking distance of the Blacksmiths’ Bastion on a rock hill Warthe, Black Tower dominates Brasov Şcheii with its dimensions, it must prevent the enemy from the walls near the town, there were more than 5 m of rock (only in 1819 – 1820 passage was widened). Occupying an area of ??50 square meters, the tower is 11 m in height, and measured based on its walls two meters thick. Drawing with six goals on each side of it, arranged in three lines of attack. The interior has three floors and galleries, more recently, the tower have a liaison with the city by a bridge that left up to the Blacksmith’s Bastion. The tower dates from the fifteenth century, was built along with the White Tower. However, the first documentary mention of the tower dates from 1541. No longer retain the original roof, was destroyed by lightning on 23 July 1559, and the fire of 1689 – have blackened walls of the tower and gave the name today. He was destroyed by lightning in 1696, but was restored as of 1735 shows an engraving print. During the plague epidemic of 1756, it appears that the Black Tower was last used as shelter for guards and point guard cordon around the city. In case of danger, a thick iron chain between the rock and stopped communication with after bastion walls
of the Netherlands. The roof, still existing in 1796, due to adversities time in 1827 made a request for restoration, but because the city did not bring revenues, the application was approved. Only in 1900 the question of restoring the monument, a building being done on the upper walls in 1901. On the night of 3 to 4 July 1991, the southern wall of the tower collapsed after a downpour. Restoration took place in 1996 but barely.
Built between 1460 and 1494, and today, the White Tower is impressive and massive zvelteţea its architectural lines. Summarizing the data architecture can say open semicircular plan, more than 30 m level difference to the city walls, height: 20 m to 18 m towards the hill town and the wall based on the 4 m and diameter of the tower measuring 19 m. along its walls, the tower has battlements, holes for pitch and balconies supported by brackets carved in stone. Being at 59 m from the wall of the city, communicate with the tower by a bridge that connects the tower and Graft Bastion. He overlooks Blumăna and, with its five floors, was the highest point of the fortification of Brasov. Inside the tower to keep the chimney above a hearth, which could serve to heat the guards and defenders – Tanners guildsmen brazier. In 1678, the Guild purchased tinned obligation to defend the tower, the number of artisans are low. When the great fire of 21 April 1689, led by a strong wind the fire involve the White Tower, which burned, was just renovated in 1723.
Blade Tower and Shoemakers Tower
Near the city of Brasov, at the foot of Tampa, were built in the fifteenth century, two towers on the lookout, the city united by a row of walls that also extend from the towers atop the mountain. Probably from the age of abandonment of a firearm, two observation points were finally removed in the eighteenth century (two prints of the same age have, in turn, Tampa with and without them).
Blade Tower, located next to the Bastion, had to open towards the scaffold. Today there is no trace left of it. Shoemakers Tower, located above the Drapers’Bastion, and Curmătura Blumăna dominate (the area between Tampa and Snail Hill). Nowadays one can see that there are platform and a good part of the connecting wall that crossed the mountain.
Shoemakers Tower ruins, with a portion of the wall.