I begin this series of posts as a gift for my best friend Natalia Golemanova,the first of my friends that play for my country has shown interest.
The population of Moldova is drawn from Getic Romanized Dacian tribes. Period of Roman occupation of Dacia and the Black Sea coast to Olbia (today Transylvania, Oltenia, Dobrogea and Bugeac) created a new culture by the colonists Romanization of the local population. After the Roman Empire withdrew from the north of the Danube in 271 AD, a lot of migrating peoples passed through this region: Huns, Goths, Slavs, Avars, Bulgars, Iasi, Hazarii, Hungarians, Petchenegs, Cumans and Tatars. But Romanized population, refugees in highlands such as the Carpathians or Woodlands, Woods or ground, gradually returned to lowlands, as the invasion is rare, while sedentary states strengthen Christian.
Thus interfered with migration Slavs (the best known of which are Anti, and Ulicii Tiverţii) and Iran (the best known of which are Jassy) it has assimilated. In the thirteenth century Moldova was in a zone of influence of the kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia, being divided into smaller local knezdoms Onutu as that of (near Khotyn) Hansca at the city (in land Lăpuşnic), or of Bârladnicilor (with capital to Barlad). Iasi (people related to the current Irani Ossetia in the Caucasus) possessed the heart of the country, their capital, Aski, called Civitas iassiorum chronicles (Science Today) . Bugeac Dniester Valley and were dominated by the Tartars. In the fourteenth century, Hungary has extended its influence in this area and its masters have created some Saxon fortifications near the river Trotus (Romania today) and Neamt (bath or Mulda) because of frequent Tatar raids. In 1347, the Hungarian king Louis I, defeat the Tartars it passes east of the Carpathians, where it leaves one party to campaign on Bedeu Dragos, Duke in Maramures, the prince of a mark against the Tartars: Moldova (Hungarian Moldvai). Eight years later, in 1359, another Prince of Maramures, Bogdan from Dolha, go to Moldova, he banishes his nephew Dragos Balc of Bedeu, and Moldova declared independence. Bogdan from Dolha reigned until 1363, while Balc returned to near his cousin Drag Maramures. Bogdan descendants from Dolha unified under their rule across the Carpathians, Dniester, Danube, setting the path Tartar camps Székely soldiers from the remaining names Mikloshély (Miclăuşeni) Várhelyi (Orhei), Kis- malevolence (Chisinau) and Csupor (Ciubărciu today Ciobruci).
Dragos’s time of Bedeu, Moldova did not exceed the land of the Carpathian rivers Ceremuş and Siren, a side of the Moldova River. His followers have dominion stretched especially south and east, so the throne Dolha Bogdan I, was from Moldova: Dniester north and east, bordering Poland, Lithuania and the Tatars, West Carpathians border with Transylvania and the Carpathian Mountains to the south a line connecting the Black Sea, passing below Bacau Bârlad Goteşti, salted and Codăeşti (south of city-White): the border with Romanian Country. Under Roman rule I, which was titled “Lord of the mountains to the sea”, Moldova extended northward (Pocutia) and over the Dniester (Dubasari from “dubasele” went round the ferryman river, carrying people and cargo) .Under the reign of Alexander the Good Pocutia his return to Poland, but instead give them Moldovan Romanian Country land along the Danube to the sea, except with Chilia, part of the land beyond Trotus and Putnam, it will take a nephew of Alexander the Good but Vlad’s cousin, namely Stephen. Moldova reached when the maximum extent and its power. Stephen with his army of boyars and yeomen fought successfully both against the Turkish invasion, Hungarian and Polish, and against the Tatars.
Stephen, the most famous Moldavian prince, fought in 36 major battles, defeating 34 times and finishing only two undecided. Stephen remained on the throne while opponents have left the country with heavy casualties. Moreover, in the Middle Ages, when a prince lost a fight in their own country, or was killed, or were driven abroad, and go into exile. At the end of his reign, Moldova’s independence was uncertain because of the Turkish threat. To preserve the independence of the country, Stephen was forced to cede Turks Chilia Akkerman (main port of Moldova) and Snake Island.
Following her reign weaker, which were more or less under the tutelage of nobility, deprived and impoverished Moldova: no longer fleet endanger trade and the army, initially composed of yeomen moşneni and able to fight hard for their land was gradually replaced by mercenary troops Albanians and Hungarians, as serfdom peasants and deprive them connected to the land. Under these conditions, Moldova fell under the influence of Ottoman power in 1512 and became a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire for the next 300 years. Besides paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, Moldova lost territories: Target lands, long Tighina between 1534 and 1538 (since then called Budzhak, Bender was named Bender) and land Hotin 1713. Above the intervention in the election of leaders of Moldova to the Ottoman authorities gradually reduced independence voivodship, who had to suffer and many Turkish invasion, Tatar and Russian.
Some who have followed Mr Stephen the Great, were revealed only four positive: Petru Rares, Alexandru Lapusneanu, Vasile Lupu, and Dimitrie Cantemir.
Moldova, included in the catchment areas of rivers Siret and Jijia in Eastern Carpathians, is outside the major cities in the north: Iasi (one of the oldest cities, cultural, scientific and artistic, with many museums – Union Museum, Ethnographic Museum, Art Museum and its architectural monuments – Saint Niculae Church century. XV century monasteries Galata and Goliath. XVI century Cetatuia and the Three Hierarchs. XVII, Palace of Culture of the early twentieth century in style Gothic, with rich interior and exterior decorations) Pascani (with historical monuments, a mansion and Saints Michael and Gabriel Church, both in seconds XVII), Roman (the Armenian Church of the century. sixteenth century and Viti Inn. XVIII) Piatra Neamt Targu Neamt, Bacau, Vaslui (the ruins of a fortress and church of St. John the Baptist – the fifteenth century, mausoleum heroes during the war for independence from 1877-1878), Barlad Focsani (which is famous in the neighborhood vineyards at Jaristea, Odobesti Cotesti), Galati (fluviomarin important port, industrial center, commercial and cultural center, the largest shipyard and steel mill in the country), Tecuci (the famous vineyards of Nicoresti and arises from nearby) and Marasesti that deserves to be mentioned here for the pages of history written during the First World War, remaining in our memory by the mausoleum near here and Marasti.
Beauty Moldavia.Historic monuments worth visiting.
XVI century, when Ottoman armies pressure on the Moldovan state was mexima, and the Hungarians tried to request the Pope, Roman Catholicism, local artists have found the most simple and direct way to forward contemporaries, but over the centuries, a quintessence milenare.In traditions only 20 years, they covered the walls of these five churches with a veritable “illustrated Bible.
In the years when Michelangelo appreciate that “frescoes are the toughest and most daring paintings, Moldovan painters created masterpieces comparable works europene.Mai Moreover, their frescoes hidden secrets that even today, after more than 500 years, not was revealed.
A mystery, that would like to know all modern painters and chemists is the color that has not been altered either by crossing centuries and even the weather conditions of chromatic aspre.Inspirate Bucovina (blue sky, heavy rust, yellow, ocher, five shades of purple and green) colors – which became famous around the world – continue to remain a mystery.
A chronicle of the reign of Stefan cel Mare mention the many plum brandy barrels sent periodically painters. But they could not drink so much and no time to trade that have.De not drink, had secretly ‘tuicii’ yards mosque must have been alta.There assumptions, and partially confirmed in the laboratory that was used to plaster delicious drink walls and mixing colors.
Another mystery, village five monuments is that biblical characters are dressed in local port and have their traditional occupations, although the weather was typical of extreme religious about respecting tradition of Byzantine origin.
By Prince Petru Rares care in the year 1532 Moldovita Monastery was built. A royal house, huts, four defense towers and church set up the famous. Defended by strong walls with a height that exceeds 6 feet, having a thickness of 1.20 meters, while the monastery acquired a stronghold easy matter, but this takes away the charm that is endowed Moldovita.
It is known that, prior to erection of the monastery, Prince Alexander the Kind built a stone church dedicated to the Annunciation, which grew around the settlement known as the Monastery calugaresca Moldovita. Due to heavy rain in the settlement of Alexander the Good XVI collapsed, only a few ruins remain, which can be viewed today Moldova is individualized by some elements of the ordinance iconography, the painting style and the dominant tone of red-brown color, from blue and green trees Voronet of red-ocher of Humor. Moldovita painter can also still be rather plastic compared with understanding how a designer, a miniature, while the expression of a saving Probota capture of light and shadow, the tree a colorist and a painter Humor complex – cartoonist, colorist and Enlightenment as well. Finally regarding the ordinance iconography, to capture some features, especially in exterior painting: Genesis on the west wall – pillars and tambourines – the porch, extending the grounds of Juecatii then jambs of arches inside the porch, no Divine Life . Nicholas on the south wall, finally pleading Virgin personification of the church, and at the same time, the image of a lady surrounded by her court, is framed by Angels records – not the seraphim – marking a preference for concrete character, and less for symbolic value of images.
Church owns property or a few objects of priceless artistic and historical value: the long list and epitrafurile (long list of art work by sculptural decoration and also notes on historical document because it includes two epirtafuri-century embroidery of the XV century). Among the most beautiful pieces and include royal chair, Petru Rares given period. Notable proportions which give him a monumental allure, chair arms is decorated with Moldova, with small flowers braided lines and brassicas.
Clisiarnita is arranged in the monastery museum. Precious pieces are exhibited here is furniture – a royal throne that belonged Petru Rares, with beautiful geometric and vegetal, stylized geometric grouped lezene legs and full registers or perforated on the sides and backs. The latter is at the top, arched, a vigorous rosette frame with a twisted rope motif, framed in two smaller poles finished with stag heads. It keeps the aemenea an epitaph embroidery and some icons in the seventeenth century. Other jeweles are found in other monasteries, by libraries and museums, as such, panaghiarul, kept at Putna.
Built in just three and a half months in 1488, specialists were called “the Sistine Chapel in northern Romania. The magnificent blue Voronet, as famous as “Titian’s red” and “Veronese’s green, continue to remain an enigma. Color composition, which gives an extraordinary freshness and brightness, was lost with the death of its author.
Not far from Gura Humorului, a tributary of the Moldova Valley was built over five centuries ago one of the most beautiful monasteries. Frescoes decorating the exterior and interior, original paintings and last but not least the blue – so blue – Moldovan artists show genius with a keen artistic sense have made Moldova Voronet symbol.
Rares cousin Prince, Bishop Gregory has made his great foundation Rosca: exterior painting from Voronet. Become so known for its coloristicii, especially shades of blue, is the main attraction. Tonal harmonies, shades and colors are in fact those sensitive artists, painters have filtered from the natural environment.
As is the blue sky Voronet, so they tried to reproduce the walls of the holy church. In this way they managed to create a unit indistructiva between landscape and exterior painting of the church. In addition, depending on the contour and color accents that they used were able to demonstrate that when you look remotely perceive clearly drawn figures.
As the monastery is architecturally similar to the other churches built during the reign of Stefan cel Mare. Built on a trefoil, having a tower above the nave roof and fragmented, built to receive a high note of originality in decoration. Form semicircular apses retains original decorative elements: elongated niches and holes in the cornice. Two bases stacked high tower decorated in turn the same way. Gothic elements are present in the frames of windows. Stone surround frames the doors to engage in holy shrine situated on the north and south porch contains elements of Gothic and Renaissance decoration. A semi-cylindrical cross vault porch crowned. Two large windows allow light to penetrate into this room. They were placed above the door. The narthex is covered by a dome and he shaped cap. Breaking arc Mulururi fit narthex entrance portal. In turn embedded in the wall separating the door is possible to switch from the narthex to the nave. Moldovan arches and dome sutin pandantivii nave and tower. Elongated and covered with a dome-shaped quarter-sphere differs from the other altar apse apses.
West facade of the impressive scene of the Last Judgement is made compositional four registers. On top is God the Father, the second register includes Deisis scene framed by the Apostles seated. The river starts at the feet of the Saviour of sinners fire which was his agony. The third register is Etimasia symbolized the Holy Spirit as a dove, the Holy Gospels and the Romanian people Protoparintii-north having a group of believers guided by St. Paul and south groups of believers who receive reproof of Moses. The fourth register in the middle, which weighs sweep is good deeds and the bad, between angels and demons fight for souls, in the northern heaven and hell in the south.
Built four centuries ago, the royal command, as a fortress that can not penetrate the foot of the pagan, Sucevita Monastery, with its towers and walls, the church and hundreds of his paintings that cover the exterior walls, is one gem Bukovina and peak Moldavian feudal art. Legend says the place to motivate mystery left unpainted portions of the wall, she stayed during ctitoririi monastery, when scaffolding collapsed and died painter buried under its debris.
Sucevita monastery was imposed while the magnificent set of paintings that are, according to French researcher Paul Henry “Moldovan testament classical art. It means the moment of transition from the burgeoning art of the fifteenth century – and the sixteenth century – the century in decline in the seventeenth century and the eighteenth century. Impressive religious monuments including the second half of the sixteenth century, the church Manstirii Sucevita, whose facades were originally dressed in luxurious surroundings fresco represents the latest phase of development of architecture in the era of feudalism and developed specifically tratitional Moldovan style .
The complexity of its components, the church built between 1582 – 1584 as a foundation of brothers George and Jeremiah heap, first Metropolitan, second – Prince of Moldavia between 1594 – 1606 – is one of the most visited sights in northern Molovata.
It preserves the original unaltered image glory architectural forms characteristic of that period of time. Situated in a beautiful mountain area, is in the vicinity Sucevita monasteries and churches whose historical and architectural value is inestimable, and Putna Moldovita, Humor and Dragomirna.
The monastery is located 16 km from Radauti and 55 km from Campulung Moldovenesc.
The beginnings of the monastery of St. Nicholas Church lost in the mists of time, in establishing the Moldovan feudal state. Over time, this unique architectural monument of beauty fulfilled a historical role, particularly religious and cultural. Despite the weather, the church has withstood centuries Tartar and Turkish invasions, robberies, wars and domination hasburgice constituted over time warranty Romanian national spirit.
If the first monastery in Transylvania was Hodos (Bodrog), mentioned in 1117 in a letter to King Bela III and the Romanian Country monastery dedicated to the Assumption,’s Negru Voda, Moldova we monastery of St. Nicholas founded by Bogdan I.
Architectural monument, St. Nicholas church was built by Prince Bogdan Voda (1359-1365), as thanks to God for victory in what they wore lupetele to build a free and independent state of East Carpathians, Moldavia. This sanctuary of worship was to be his cemetery and both his followers and his family are buried here rulers of Moldavia until Alexander the Good, but the ruling family and relatives.
During the reign of Alexander the Good, the church became the seat of bishops, bishops residing in the monastery. Some historians say was the residence of Metropolitan Bogdana monastery, until 26 July 1401 when the Metropolitan of Moldova was officially recognized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople and metropolitan seat was moved from Suceava.
In 1775, when Moldova was occupied northern hasburgi, was desfiintarta monastery and church of St. Nicholas Episcopal Church remained until 1782, when the diocese was transferred to Chernovtsy. The diocese moved to Czernowitz in 1782, the church of St. Nicholas was transformed into a parish church, parish, part of the existing cells around the church were demolished and another part is converted into stables for horses Austrian garrison stationed there.
After 1918, when Bukovina was released, Bogdana monastery has not been reestablished, and the church of St. Nicholas parish church remained until the last decades of the twentieth century when it was closed by the communist regime, is considered a historical monument.
The monastery was reopened on December 6, 1992, when it was installed, first abbot of the monastery after 1775, in the person of Archimandrite Theodore Pavlo. In 1996 Abbot Theodore moved to the eternal, in his place was elected Father Justin Archimandrite Dragomir.
The new abbot of accelerated work in progress and started new ones, so that in 1996 was replaced degraded wood iconostasis of the Church of Saint Nicholas with lime a new oak and began building a body of cells with xenodochium , completed in 1998. Also in 1998 was completed and covered with copper sheet, the new church dedicated to Saint Leontios.
Saint Nicholas church architecture. St. Nicholas Church is the first religious building stone of Moldova, preserved in its original form, unaltered until today, is considered a true document delivery architecture Moldova.
St. Nicholas Church remembers a time related zbuciumatele Moldovan feudal state and the foundation is a wonderful expression of artistic synthesis between architecture Romanesque, Gothic and Byzantine. Mood characteristic basilica plan with Romanesque choir and apse. Tendency of some spring breaks and vaults are typical Gothic architecture and Byzantine architecture is the delineation of the interior space into the sanctuary, nave, narthex and porch.
The church of St. Nicholas. Recorded as shown in church history, the first layer of painting probably dates from the first decades of the century. XIV, during the reign of Alexander the Good. During Lapusneanu prince in the year 1558, registering a new coat of paint. A layer of painting Lapusneanu as the years 1745-1750, during Bishop James Putneanul. Frescoes come in this last phase is covered with a painting done in tempera, the painter Epaminonda Bucevschi Bucovina in 1880.
The votive picture painted in the nave, with Bogdan Lapusneanu and Alexander the Good, Stephen the Great is proof of execution or during painting.
Graves. St. Nicholas Church Alegertea as resting place of princes is irrefutable proof of the first stone churches in Moldova. Thus, there are seven tombs in the nave. The first grave in the southeastern corner of the nave is of Bogdan I. On the same side of the nave is buried and Latcu Prince. In his tomb apopierea Bogdan and his tomb is the inscription Latcu lespezii Funeral removed, is placed at floor level and not above the other. After the supposed size tombstones buried here was a woman, maybe his wife Mary Ann Bogdan and his wife Latcu. On the other hand, says historian Stephen Gorovei this tomb belongs to Peter, it is not buried at Probota. He argues his view in that the Radauti, until Alexander the Good, the princes were buried under their succession to the throne, so after Bogdan and Latcu from Peter, so that his grave following his Latcu.
Near the north wall are four tombs of Stephen I, Roman I, Bogdan, brother of Alexander the Good and Bogdan, son of Alexandru cel Bun. In the narthex of the church, are three graves. On the north side the tomb Ms. Stana Bogdan III’s wife and mother of Stefan Voda and daughter Anastasia Latcu grave. Before the narthex door is the tombstone of Bishop Ioanichie, who died in 1504.
St. Leontie. Also in the church narthex and are relics of Saint Leontie. Was a monk at St. Leontios Bogdana Monastery in the name of Lawrence, and later received the grace of the priesthood, he retired in Radauti woods, where he built a wooden church known as Lawrence’s Hermitage or Hermitage Laura, one of the most ancient hermitages in northern Moldova. During the reign of Alexander the Good he became bishop of the Diocese of Radauti. After a time not too long retired from the Episcopal seat, is returning to his hermitage Putna Valley, where he dressed as the Great Schism Leontios monks. Died shortly after it was buried by
his disciples in the wooden church of the hermitage Laura. Holy relics Leontios, gift endowed by God with miracles of childbirth were moved from Radauti Episcopal Cathedral.
After the founding of the state and also Bogdana Monastery, here were the foundations of religious education in Moldova by setting up a school. The core of this school consisted of monks and monks were among the disciples and the people that science writing and reading skill to become logofeti Royal Chancellery or teachers asked the Episcopal Chancellery affairs.
Bogdana Monastery in cultural activities held here, since the foundation of her early years of Moldavian feudal state constitution, the convent school and then printing whose books have arrived in Maramures and Transylvania and the monastery workshops proved to be a true center culture, helping to maintain the unity of nation, language and faith of the Romans.
The artistic skills, architectural and decorative Bogdana Monastery is today one of the monuments reprentative artistic and cultural heritage of Romania, was included in UNESCO, showing an old and deep feeling of our people with the Divine.
Is first built by Prince Petru Rares, built in 1530 on a site dedicated to the wooden church (1398) and other stone (about 1440) whose traces are gone from the neighborhood. “Probota” means brotherhood.
Architecture: monumental buildings, harmonious, elansat, with a tower above the nave, porch closed high Gothic windows with carved stone borders, polygonal apses and holes marked by blind arcades, the bank extended pedestal round. Defensive walls six feet tall, square towers round the monastery and the royal house with Moldovan civil architectural elements – one of the few parts of the XVI century there. Continue the restoration.
Original interior painting (1532) was kept in a small degree, though sufficient to arouse admiration. Last Judgement (the porch) is introduced here for the first time in Moldova cousin Prince Petru Rares, egumentul monastery future Metropolitan scholar Gregory Rosca. Is large, the vault, the composition is surrounded by symbols of the zodiac. Synods and Calendar (menologul) can be traced in the narthex as they were originally designed, but votive painting (Petru Rares, Mrs. Helen Ilias) suffered just two interventions, around 1550 and 1844.
Probota Monastery is one of the first Moldovan churches, painted exterior (1532). Fresco that was not preserved in the best conditions as the other monuments Moldovan although climatic conditions are similar, is probably due to insufficient knowledge of color fixing technique, problem solved after three years, Humor. There are traces of Hymn (Siege of Constantinople), the Tree of Ieseu and vague picture of Gregory Rosca. The church crypt is more tombstones, including the Prince Rares, its Mrs. Helen Stephen’s. White marble, it carries a rich decoration in the process of transformation: moving from stonemasons to the geometric elements accentuated floral innovation that are representative of the XVI century sculpture.
Putna Monastery is known about the first built by Stephen the Great. Furthermore, Prince wanted her to be a place of eternal rest. Thus, like Bogdan I and Alexander the Good, Stephen the Great meant since its foundation domnesca cemetery. Through numerous donations made Prince Stephen the Great and showed appreciation towards the church.
As was noted in letopisetele Putna Putna I and II, the prince placed the cornerstone in July 1466. Church building took three years, but inside the walls but not taller than in 1481. Church blessing was done in 1470 on September 8. It is very possible that the monastery has undergone some changes in 1484, after a fire
Putney have been gifted by its founder a silver censer, having a value Aristita, several crosses by hand, including a cypress wood carving and icons of great artistic beauty.
Undoubtedly Putna monastery church was monumental, and artisans. Painters Race is on skill. About the beauty, the chronicler John Neculce mentions in his writings.
Fortifications of the monastery of Stephen the Great Tower is the only remaining treasure. Built in 1481 and according pisaniei designed with two floors above the last as having a heated terrace with a castellated parapet, discovered today wearing a pointed roof. Partrunde light through narrow windows, decorated with carved stone borders in a manner reminiscent of Gothic secular later. Tower entrance, consisting of a crossed a floor and first floor vaulted corridor with battlements belongs to the XVII-XVIII centuries.
Inside the church consists of five rooms (porch, narthex, tomb room, nave and altar) where they belong, certainly original plan. The two entrances located on the south and north sides of the porch shall make the church. A box of Gothic, made interesting, said the narthex at the entrance door. Its walls house the tomb of Prince Stephen the Great. Oak leaves, bent stalks which form four medallions in the shape of heart and head decorates Bull ledger deposited in a niche in the tomb room. At Putnam were buried last wife of prince – Mary Voichita – the second wife – Mary Mangop – having a ledger Oriental influence, and two sons Stephen the Great – Peter and Bogdan.
The building is due to the eighteenth century was subsequently modified in 1757 and the beginning of our century. With all the transformations to the monastery keeps unchanged appearance of the city, so characteristic of large settlements
Putna Old Church
Grave monument of Stefan cel Mare
Stephen the Great’s tomb at Putna Mary Voichita (Maria Voichita – the third wife of Stephen the Great)
Tomb of Mary of Mangop (Mary Mangop – second wife of Stephen) and their children: Peter and Bogdan.
Of course we presented only a small part of Moldavia beauties.
Others will let you discover them my friends visiting this corner of the world blessed by God.